J. A. Palmer SP-319 - History

J. A. Palmer SP-319 - History

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J. Palmer SP-319

J. Palmer

A former name retained.

(SP-319: t. 276; 1. 155'; b. 22'; dr. 12'; s. 12 k.; a. 2 1-pdrs.)

J. Palmer (SP-319), or Palmer, a wooden fishing vessel, was built in 1912 by Jackson and Sharpe, Wilmington, Del.; purchased by the Navy from her owners, C. E. Davis Packing Co., Reedville, Va.; and commissioned 7 April 1917, Boatswain W. Hudgins in command.

J. Palmer, assigned to the 5th Naval District, operated on patrol off Cape Henry until February 1918 when she received special cable equipment at Berkeley, Va. The ship was then loaned to the Coast Guard for use as a cable ship and steamed along the Atlantic coast laying and repairing cable. To avoid confusion with destroyer Palmer, her name was dropped 17 January 1919. SP-319 was subsequently turned over permanently to the Coast Guard 10 September 1919 for continued use as a cable ship, and was renamed Pequot by the Treasury Department.

Risks of and risk factors for COVID-19 disease in people with diabetes: a cohort study of the total population of Scotland

Background: We aimed to ascertain the cumulative risk of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with diabetes and compare it with that of people without diabetes, and to investigate risk factors for and build a cross-validated predictive model of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 among people with diabetes.

Methods: In this cohort study, we captured the data encompassing the first wave of the pandemic in Scotland, from March 1, 2020, when the first case was identified, to July 31, 2020, when infection rates had dropped sufficiently that shielding measures were officially terminated. The participants were the total population of Scotland, including all people with diabetes who were alive 3 weeks before the start of the pandemic in Scotland (estimated Feb 7, 2020). We ascertained how many people developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in this period from the Electronic Communication of Surveillance in Scotland database (on virology), the RAPID database of daily hospitalisations, the Scottish Morbidity Records-01 of hospital discharges, the National Records of Scotland death registrations data, and the Scottish Intensive Care Society and Audit Group database (on critical care). Among people with fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19, diabetes status was ascertained by linkage to the national diabetes register, Scottish Care Information Diabetes. We compared the cumulative incidence of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with and without diabetes using logistic regression. For people with diabetes, we obtained data on potential risk factors for fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 from the national diabetes register and other linked health administrative databases. We tested the association of these factors with fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with diabetes, and constructed a prediction model using stepwise regression and 20-fold cross-validation.

Findings: Of the total Scottish population on March 1, 2020 (n=5 463 300), the population with diabetes was 319 349 (5·8%), 1082 (0·3%) of whom developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 by July 31, 2020, of whom 972 (89·8%) were aged 60 years or older. In the population without diabetes, 4081 (0·1%) of 5 143 951 people developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19. As of July 31, the overall odds ratio (OR) for diabetes, adjusted for age and sex, was 1·395 (95% CI 1·304-1·494 p<0·0001, compared with the risk in those without diabetes. The OR was 2·396 (1·815-3·163 p<0·0001) in type 1 diabetes and 1·369 (1·276-1·468 p<0·0001) in type 2 diabetes. Among people with diabetes, adjusted for age, sex, and diabetes duration and type, those who developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 were more likely to be male, live in residential care or a more deprived area, have a COVID-19 risk condition, retinopathy, reduced renal function, or worse glycaemic control, have had a diabetic ketoacidosis or hypoglycaemia hospitalisation in the past 5 years, be on more anti-diabetic and other medication (all p<0·0001), and have been a smoker (p=0·0011). The cross-validated predictive model of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with diabetes had a C-statistic of 0·85 (0·83-0·86).

Interpretation: Overall risks of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 were substantially elevated in those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with the background population. The risk of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19, and therefore the need for special protective measures, varies widely among those with diabetes but can be predicted reasonably well using previous clinical history.

Photo, Print, Drawing Whitaker family / photographed by J.A. Palmer, Aiken, S.C. digital file from original photo

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J. A. Palmer SP-319 - History

B. J. Palmer — (September 14, 1882 – May 27, 1961) The Developer

Dr. B.J. Palmer launched his colorful career by assuming the responsibility of the Palmer School of Chiropractic in 1906. His contributions included extensive research, improved methods of spinal adjusting and analysis, higher standards for chiropractic education, and increased appreciation for chiropractic worldwide. B.J. battled on many fronts — legal and legislative obstacles to the licensing of chiropractors and financial challenges to the school. He was often the center of controversy, but well before his death in 1961, chiropractic had secured a place among the health sciences.

Mabel Heath Palmer — (1881-1949) The First Lady of Chiropractic

A guiding influence in B.J. Palmer’s life was his wife, Mabel Heath Palmer, who became a Doctor of Chiropractic in 1905. A recognized authority on anatomy and an instructor at the school for more than 30 years, Mabel Palmer was a close and valued adviser to her husband in all phases of the chiropractic profession.+

David D. Palmer (January 12, 1906 – May 24,1978) The Educator

David Palmer, the grandson of chiropractic’s founder, assumed the presidency of Palmer in 1961. An initial step toward accreditation was to change the corporate name of the Palmer School of Chiropractic to Palmer College of Chiropractic. Then the campus was modernized, with classrooms renovated and modern teaching aids installed. Two other key contributions were the establishment of non-profit status for Palmer College and the organization of the Palmer College of Chiropractic International Alumni Association. After Dr. Dave’s death in 1978, the College received accreditation from the Council on Chiropractic Education and the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.

Dr. Jay M. Holder—Inventor of the Torque Release Technique (TRT)

Dr. Holder is the first American to receive the Albert Schweitzer Prize in Medicine from the Albert Schweitzer-Gesellschaft, Austria. 1992 Chiropractor of the Year by The Florida Chiropractic Association, and Florida Chiropractic Society Researcher of the Year in 1995. Dr. Holder is Adjunct Professor, St. Martin’s College, Milwaukee held appointment to the faculty at the University of Miami, Center for Addiction Studies and Education, and held appointment as post graduate faculty at numerous chiropractic colleges including National College, Life College, Life West and Parker College. Executive Board Member and Treasurer of the Council on Chiropractic Practice.

He is the developer of Torque Release Technique®, discover and developer of the Foundation Point System and Addiction Axis Line in Auriculotherapy, President/Co-Founder of the American College of Addictionology and Compulsive Disorders, which trains and board certifies professionals in the field of addiction worldwide and is Director/Founder of Exodus Treatment Center, a 350 bed addiction facility located in Miami, Florida, Director/Founder of Exodus Israel Addiction and Research Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

At the age of 14, Dr. Holder began his experience in research in neurotoxins at the University of Miami School of Medicine. Dr. Holder is presently developing the efficacy of the chiropractic subluxation in addiction treatment and is expanding The Brain Reward Cascade and Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), a model supporting the vertebral subluxation complex. The 1993 United States Senate compared Dr. Holder’s Success in research to Michael Jordan’s performance in basketball. Author of 2 books, edited in several others, author of many scientific papers and research studies, and inventor of medical, acupuncture and chiropractic devices, Dr. Holder lectures worldwide and is in private practice in Miami Beach, Florida, since 1977.

Modern Chiropractic Care

We envision a world of natural health and healing from within, filled with communities where hospitals are empty and children are living drug free lives. We are on a mission to reach the world with chiropractic by helping as many families and children in this community reach an optimal level of health and improved quality of life by removing neurological interference through specific scientific chiropractic adjustments. Our team is honored to have the opportunity serve the Lakewood Ranch, Sarasota, Bradenton, Palmetto, Ellenton, Parrish, Ruskin, Sun City Center, Brandon, Tampa, Apollo Beach, Gibsonton, Riverview, Myakka City, Venice, Port Charlotte, Arcadia, Osprey, Laurel, North Port, Englewood, Rotonda West, Punta Gorda, Bowling Green, Wauchula, Fort Meade and surrounding communities through chiropractic!

Contact Us

Roger Hynes
Contact Dr. Hynes with questions about the Osteological Collection or potential donations of chiropractic artifacts
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Contact Julie with questions regarding Mansion tours, reference questions and related topics
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Tour Information
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Critical Care Toxicology

Editors: Brent, J., Burkhart, K., Dargan, P., Hatten, B., Mégarbane, B., Palmer, R., White, J. (Eds.)

  • Supports medical staff in the diagnosis, treatment and management of patients with acute poisoning
  • Updates the field with evidence-based paradigms and citations in each chapter
  • Collates the work of international experts on both toxic syndromes and posionings

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  • ISBN 978-3-319-17899-8
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Building on the previous edition with contributions from internationally renowned experts this book provides a fully comprehensive resource for managing the post emergency/treatment stage of acute poisoning. Chapters incorporate evidence-based paradigms with up-to-date citations from the original medical literature. Topic areas covered include: diagnosis and management of the critically poisoned patient, including pediatric patients and poisoning in pregnancy toxic syndromes including hepatotoxic and pulmonary syndromes as well as poisonings from medications, drugs of abuse, chemical and biological agents. This book is an essential resource for Clinical Toxicologists, Intensivists and Emergency Medicine specialists in training and in practice.

Jeffrey Brent, M.D., Ph.D (biochemistry), is a Distinguished Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Colorado School of Public Health. He completed his medical toxicology Fellowship training at the Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center and has a long career of active research in medical toxicology. His Curriculum vitae lists nearly 300 publications of various kinds, including original research papers, abstracts, chapters, and reviews. Currently, Dr. Brent is Principal Investigator and Director of the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC), an NIH supported national multi-center study group in medical toxicology.Dr. Brent is a former President of the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT), a former member of the Board of Directors of the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT), a recipient of the Louis Roche award from the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists, the Career Achievement Award from the AACT, and the Ellenhorn Award from the ACMT, and the Clinical Translational Sciences Career Achievement Award from the Society of Toxicology.

Dr Burkhart is the Lead Medical Officer for the Medical Informatics Team in the Division of Applied Regulatory Science in the Office of Clinical Pharmacology in the Office of Translational Sciences in the Center for Drug Evaluation and research at the FDA . He received his medical toxicology training at the Rocky Mountain Poison Center in Denver. Emergency medicine training was at the University of Cincinnati. His Medical Degree is from the Medical College of Pennsylvania, now Drexel University. His B.S. is from Ursinus College in Biology. He is a Past-President of the American College of Medical Toxicology. He is a Clinical Professor of Emergency Medicine at the Penn State University College of Medicine. Medical toxicology is practiced at the PinnacleHealth Hospital in Harrisburg, PA. He was the Medical Director for the Penn State Poison Center.

Dr Paul Dargan is a Consultant Physician and Clinical Toxicologist and Clinical Director at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK, and a Reader in Toxicology at King's College London. He has an active research and teaching programme with a focus on recreational drug toxicity, self-poisoning and heavy metal toxicity. He has published over 210 peer-reviewed papers and numerous book chapters. He sits on the UK Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD), the Scientific Committee of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drugs Addiction EMCDDA) and is an expert adviser to a number of other bodies including the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the World Health Organisation (WHO).

Dr. Hatten is an Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine and Medical Toxicologist at the Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center in Denver, Colorado. He has an active toxicology practice in Denver and is academic faculty in the Medical Toxicology Fellowship and Emergency Medicine Residency at the University of Colorado. In addition, he serves as an instructor in the Colorado School of Public Health. He underwent Medical Toxicology fellowship training and received a Master of Public Health at Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, Oregon. Prior to this, he completed Emergency Medicine residency training at Denver Health Medical Center in Denver, Colorado. He is an alumni of the University of Texas-Southwestern School of Medicine in Dallas, Texas. He also holds a Bachelor of Arts from Hendrix College in Conway, Arkansas.

Bruno Megarbane is Professor of critical care medicine at Paris-Diderot University in Paris, France. He is the head of the Medical and Toxicological Intensive Care Unit, Lariboisière Hospital in Paris. His clinical researches focus at identifying prognostic factors and improving the management of severe poisonings including cardiotoxicant poisonings. He also actively participates to experimental researches at INSERM U1144, investigating the mechanisms of toxicity of psychotropic drugs like opioids and the new psychoactive substances. He is the President-elect of the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT). He is also an active member of the French Society of Intensive Care Medicine (SRLF), the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) and the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT). He is associate editor in Clinical Toxicology.

Dr. Palmer is a partner with the private practice Toxicology Associates in Denver, CO. He completed a BS degree in chemistry at the University of Idaho, and MS and PhD degrees in organic-medicinal chemistry from the University of Washington. He completed a NIDA postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Washington specializing in the pharmacology and medicinal chemistry of opioids, and a clinical toxicology fellowship at the Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center (RMPDC) in Denver, CO. Dr. Palmer was previously faculty at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, where he worked extensively with the Office of the Medical Investigator. He is board-certified in clinical toxicology and currently president-elect of the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology. He currently holds faculty appointments at the University of Wyoming, and University of Colorado School of Medicine, as well as serving as a faculty attending toxicologist for the medical toxicology fellowship program at the RMPDC.

Julian White AM MB, BS, MD, FACTM is a consultant clinical toxinologist, founder and director of the Toxinology Department at Women’s & Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, Director of the Clinical Toxinology Short Courses, University of Adelaide. Internationally recognised for his contributions to clinical toxinology for more than 40 years, he has treated thousands of envenomed patients, authored hundreds of publications, and is Secretary/Treasurer of the International Society on Toxinology (IST) and Chair of the IST Board of Clinical Toxinology. He was awarded Membership of the Order of Australia (AM) for his contributions to clinical toxinology.

“This is a valuable addition to the archives of clinical toxicology and will undoubtedly become the standard for the profession. … I highly recommend this book as a necessary addition to the professional library of every medical student and resident with an interest in clinical toxicology as well as practitioners at all levels (nurses, fellows, residents, and attending level physicians) of critical care, intensive care, emergency medicine, and clinical and medical toxicology.” (Michael I. Greenberg, Clinical Toxicology, Vol. 56 (3), December, 2017)

Effects of pollution on macroinvertebrates and water quality bio-assessment

Many large rivers in China have an inflow of contaminated water. Water pollution caused by urban sewage and agriculture, and occasionally pollution events from industries have become a significant stress on aquatic ecology. Pollution affects the biodiversity of the aquatic community and the species composition changes from natural species to tolerant species. The species composition of aquatic animals may reflect water pollution level. Extremely non-uniform distributions of functional feeding groups occurred as a result of high nutrient levels. A combination of chemical and biological methods constitutes the best approach for biological monitoring studies that measure water quality. Macroinvertebrates were used as bio-assessment indicator to determine the environmental quality of given water body. In this study, samples of water and macroinvertebrates were taken from several dozen sites in 14 rivers in China with different pollution levels, including the Yangtze, East, Weihe, Songhua, Yongding, and Panlong rivers. Macroinvertebrates were identified to genus or family level. Water samples were classified into different water quality grades according to the concentration of different substances. Five biological indices: taxa richness (S), density (D), total BMWQ score (t-BMWQ), average BMWQ score (a-BMWQ), and the family biotic index (FBI) were used for biological assessment of water quality. Analyzing macroinvertebrates’ occurrence in different water quality levels, taxa-specific indicators, which are defined as the taxa of macroinvertebrates that live in a certain water quality level but do not exist in other water quality levels were proposed for water quality bio-assessment. Leptophlebiidae, Siphlonuridae, Arctopsychidae, Perlidae, and Antocha sp. are the taxa-specific indicators for very good or good water quality Chironomidae, Lymnaeidae, Tubifex sp., Limnodrilus sp., Limnoperna lacustris, Corbicula sp., Macrobrachium sp., Planorbidae, Glossiphoniidae, and Branchiura sp. are the taxa-specific indicators for very poor water quality and Psychomyiidae and Hydroptilidae are the taxa-specific indicators for moderate water quality.

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Social Studies and the Birth of NCSS: 1783-1921

Some of the great minds of the early nineteenth century viewed the subjects that would become part of the "social studies" as a critical part of education. Thomas Jefferson's thinking influenced educational thought for years. As Chairman of the Commissioners for the University of Virginia, Jefferson reported in 1818 that history and geography were important subjects for a primary education (Cremin 1980, 110). He also believed that these subjects, with political economy and the law of nature and nations, were essential to achieve the goal of a higher education. Benjamin Rush, another signatory of the Declaration of Independence, saw the need for education to develop good citizens. He thought young men and women should study history, geography, and political economy. And John Adams, when asked by Jefferson about subjects of practical value, included geography, history, and chronology as courses of "real value in human affairs" (Cremin 1980, 249).

The Emergence of Social Education
Saxe (1991) contends that the social studies "had its own set of unique beginnings" and did not originate, as many writers argue, "with the examination of the development of history as a field of study in the nineteenth century and its extension into the twentieth century" (1). He asserts that the "foundations" of social studies originated in Great Britain during the 1820s and quickly moved to the United States (3). Social studies emerged as an attempt to use education as a vehicle to promote social welfare, and its subsequent development was influenced both by Americans and others.
When examining the inception of social education in this country, the textbooks of the time are one of the best resources (Hooper and Smith 1993 Smith and Vining 1990). According to Jarolimek (1981), history, geography, and civics were the dominant social science courses found in the early American elementary and secondary curricula. It seems appropriate to examine these types of texts for clues about the content of the early social sciences, the precursor of social studies.

Textbook Influence on Social Education
According to Barr, Barth, and Shermis (1977), textbooks before 1880 emphasized "moral and patriotic values through historical myths, moral parables, and even religious stories" (18).
Geography textbooks were some of the earliest to appear in classrooms. Brown (1941) identified Jedidiah Morse as the "father of American geography" and the first American geographer to write for an American audience. Morse's Elements of Geography (1784) presented the geography of the United States in some detail. Published in the north, this geography was considered by southerners, according to Davis (1981), "to denigrate Southern places, people, and customs" (22). Used primarily for elementary type schools, the textbook included a history of countries and states while a 1788 edition added a history of the United States after the Revolution. Most geography taught in elementary schools between 1784 and 1830 also included a study of history. In addition to Morse's text, for example, J. A. Cummings's An Introduction to Ancient and Modern Geography (1813) integrated history and geography (Tryon 1935).

During the earliest period of U.S. nationhood, the subject of history did not exist as a separate course in the secondary or elementary grades and was generally taught as part of reading, geography, or the classics. Noah Webster was the first writer to include history as part of a reader. In 1785, the third part of Webster's A Grammatical Institute of English Language was published. Its title was "An American Selection of Lessons in Reading and Speaking, Calculated to Improve the Mind and Refine the Taste of Youth, and Also to Interest Them in Geography, History, and Politics of the United States." Later editions of his works included a history of the settlement of the United States and more geography. Other writers followed Webster's example, and historical material began to appear in more and more readers (Tryon 1935).

Webster's readers were also influential in exposing students to history in the elementary grades. One example was Webster's The Little Reader's Assistant. This beginner's reader was designed to stimulate children's curiosity in the history of the country (Tryon 1935).

History was not widely granted an autonomous place in the schools until after the 1830s. Before that time, however, it was found in some of the private schools and academies. John McCulloch, a Philadelphia printer, compiled a U.S. history book for lower grades in 1787. This was the first textbook in American history. By 1801, six history textbooks had been published in the United States (Tryon 1935 Wesley 1937 Cremin 1980 Hooper and Smith 1993). In 1827, Massachusetts required the study of U.S. history in secondary schools located in towns of five hundred families or more, and general history was required in schools where the town's population exceeded four thousand inhabitants (Cremin 1980). Actions like these spurred the production of history textbooks.

Between 1801 and 1860, there were 351 textbooks in history published or used in the United States. Most of these were general histories (109), followed by U.S. histories (105), ancient histories (77), English histories (28), and others (32). Prominent authors included Salma Hale, Jesse Olney, Emma Willard, C. A. Goodrich, A. F. Tytler, Samuel Whelpley, Samuel Griswold Goodrich (Peter Parley), Royal Robbins, Marcius Willson, J. E. Worcester, William Sullivan, and others. Most of the content of these texts was military, political, or social and economic, in that order (Tryon 1935). The Tales of Peter Parley about America (Goodrich 1827) were one example of an American history written for young children.

In the thirty years prior to the Civil War, history became an independent subject offered in most schools in the upper grades it still did not hold the rank of subjects like arithmetic and geography. Five states (Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Virginia) passed legislation requiring the teaching of history in the schools before 1860 (Tryon 1935).

One prolific writer of early textbooks was Samuel Goodrich (Peter Parley), whose history and geography textbooks captured a large portion of the market during the 1830s. Goodrich published more than 160 books, many of which pertained to history and the social sciences (Palmer, Davis, and Smith 1991 Smith and Vining 1991). These early history and geography textbooks, all published in the north, promoted white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant values. Slavery was criticized, but blacks were characterized as inferior to whites (Cremin 1980).

Between 1821 and 1851, the geography textbooks of William Channing Woodbridge were also popular in the United States. In New York state alone in 1831, Woodbridge's geographies were being used in 412 towns. He is known to have collaborated with Emma Willard, one of the first American females to publish a geography text, Ancient Geography, as Connected with Chronology, and Preparatory to the Study of Ancient History (1822 Walters 1993 Nelson 1987). Another prominent female author, characterized by Vining and Smith (1994) as being among the "first generation of American geographers," was Susanna Rowson. She published her first geography book, An Abridgement of Universal Geography, in 1805. The book used information published in the works of Morse and various English writers, but she modified it, making it more usable with young students. Later, S. S. Cornell (1854) was another prominent author of geography books, perhaps using her initials rather than her given name to conceal her gender.

Saxe (1991) argues that the work of many of the above-mentioned writers did not have a major influence on the origins of social studies as we understand it.

Finally, the third branch, as exemplified by individuals like Noah Webster, Emma Willard, and Peter Parley (Samuel G. Goodrich), . . . although related to both traditional history and social studies curricula in spirit and intent, can claim no direct lineage to the genesis or development of the 1913-1916 Social Studies. (2)
The present authors contend, however, that textbooks and those who author them have almost always been major factors in the social studies and account for the largest amount of instructional materials used by teachers. Therefore, the most prolific authors of earlier historic periods certainly had an impact on shaping what was to become the social studies.

History and the Social Sciences
Social education at the turn of the century was dominated by historians. The then emerging social sciences of sociology, political science, and economics were still establishing themselves in colleges and universities, and were not able to obtain a secure place in high school classrooms. The founding of the American Historical Association (AHA) in 1884 by university-trained historians marked the establishment of a professional organization that would allow historians to exert influence over the school curriculum (Hertzberg 1989 Barr, Barth, and Shermis 1977). As noted by Keels (1980), "In the years between 1890 and 1911, it was a given that the historians [through the American Historical Association] were the appropriate authority for making recommendations concerning the social studies. " (106).
Historians encouraged the initial social studies curriculum reform effort in 1892 at the Madison Conference in the subcommittee on "History, Civil Government and Political Economy." Historians also formed the AHA Committees of Seven (1899), Five (1905), and Eight (1907) to endorse a history-dominated curriculum. Of these committees, NEA's Committee on History, Civil Government and Political Economy and AHA's Committee of Seven were the more influential for the early social studies curriculum (Cruikshank 1957 Hertzberg 1989 Jenness 1990 Nelson 1992 Saxe 1991 Tryon 1935 Wesley 1950 Whelan 1991).

Despite the domination of history during the early years of the twentieth century, social scientists wanting to further the interests of their respective disciplines began to form new professional organizations. The founding of the American Political Science Association (APSA) occurred in 1903. The American Sociology Association was created in 1905 (Barr, Barth, and Shermis 1977). Free from control of the historians, these social scientists viewed the school curriculum as fertile ground for their respective disciplines.

Social scientists found history unable to provide the answers to the complex and difficult problems facing twentieth-century America. The social sciences were increasingly viewed as a vehicle for studying and proposing solutions to the problems resulting from a dynamic and evolving American landscape. With increasing immigration, and the growth of industrialization and urbanization, American society was understood to be experiencing rapid and unprecedented change (Hofstadter 1955 Ross 1991). Through the social sciences, students of social studies would focus on first understanding, and then improving a rapidly changing, contemporary American society. It was social studies, its advocates argued, that would properly educate democratic citizens to live in their present world.

Cruikshank (1957) summarized the social studies curriculum of 1893 to 1915 as one where the subject matter in secondary social studies became stabilized, with the content being determined mostly by historians. "Government" became "Civics," a more practical course. Geography was taught either as part of history or mostly as physical geography. Economics appeared to be well established in the curriculum. Sociology had been introduced by 1911, but was rarely found in schools.

The Emergence of the Social Studies
According to Barr, Barth, and Shermis (1977), the social studies was nurtured by the works of John Dewey and promoted by such prominent educators such as George Counts, Edgar Wesley, Harold Rugg, and Earle Rugg. Wesley (1937), sometimes referred to as "the father of the social studies," noted that the following represent significant steps in the development of the social studies:
1892 Madison Conference on the teaching of history, government, and economics
1893 B. A. Hinsdale's How to Study and Teach History
1897 William H. Mace's Method in History
1897 Founding of the Journal of School Geography [whose name was changed to the Journal of Geography in 1902. It subsequently became the official publication of the National?Council for Geographic Education, which was established in 1915.]
1899 Publication of the Report of the Committee of Seven of the American Historical Association
1902 H. E. Bournes's The Teaching of History and Civics
1909 Founding of the History Teacher's Magazine (which became the Historical Outlook in 1918 and The Social Studies in 1934)
1909 Report of the Committee of Eight of the American Historical Association on history in the elementary schools
1911 Report of the Committee of Five of the American Historical Association on history in secondary schools
1914 Organization of the National Council of Geography Teachers
1915 Community Civics, Bulletin 23 of the Bureau of Education
1915 Henry Johnson's Teaching of History in Elementary and Secondary Schools
1916 Report of the Committee of the American Political Science Association on the teaching of government
1916 Report of the Social Studies Committee of the National Education Association, Bulletin 28 of the Bureau of Education
1921 R. M. Tryon's The Teaching of History in Junior and Senior High Schools
1921 Organization of the National Council for the Social Studies. (7-8)
The coming revolution in the social studies curriculum was foreshadowed in 1915 by the observations of a historian, Teachers College professor Henry Johnson. Johnson, perhaps the first critic of social studies, argued that if the type of history instruction advanced by advocates of social studies was implemented, no true historical study could result. Johnson held the view that proper historical inquiry had merits of its own, and found great fault in any study of history conditioned by present interests and concerns (Johnson 1915).

Just such present needs, however, were to be the guiding principles for the emerging social studies curriculum. History would not be removed from the curriculum. Rather, the type of history instruction found acceptable to the "new insurgents" (Saxe 1991) in favor of social studies curriculum reform was the "new history" of James Harvey Robinson. In large part because of its emphasis on the present, this type of history instruction dovetailed nicely into the curriculum reform espoused by social scientists gaining influence over the social studies curriculum.

Robinson (1912) held that history had to be studied to increase understanding of the present. If history did not do this, Robinson argued, it was failing to contribute to the improvement of society. Many historians balked at Robinson's utilitarian vision of history, as they understood their field to be a more scholarly and scientific study of the past.

It was the advocates of the social studies, forwarding a vision of history advocated by Robinson, who stepped forward to bridge the gap between the academic study of the past and the modern concern for the production of good citizens. These social studies advocates recommended that schools concern themselves exclusively with the production of democratic citizens. Adopting the curriculum ideas of educational reformers such as Arthur W. Dunn, the emerging social studies curriculum sought to actively engage students in an examination of their surrounding political, economic, and social world. By studying contemporary problems and issues of society, these social studies advocates argued, students would be better able to function in and contribute to the improvement of society.

Wesley (1937) wrote that economics, sociology, and civics were called "social studies" as early as 1905. He was probably referring to the earliest curriculum specifically labeled as "Social Studies" and intended for citizenship education, "The Social Studies in the Hampton Curriculum." This curriculum, taught at the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Hampton, Virginia, (also known as the alma mater of Booker T. Washington) was created in 1905 by a Columbia University educated sociologist, Thomas Jesse Jones (Jones 1906). The school was originally founded to educate the freed people of the south at the close of the American Civil War.

Although controversial because its emphasis was on social control, Jones's social studies curriculum was groundbreaking in its unique combination of sociology, political science, and economics. The aim of this effort was to present to Hampton's students, primarily African Americans and Native Americans, a series of individual social studies. It would be the cumulative effect of these individual social studies, according to Jones (1906), that would result in the Hampton student's gaining a model of proper behavior, resulting in the education of a good citizen.

The Committee on Social Studies
Led by increasing calls to make the secondary school curriculum more relevant to everyday life, and to free the high school curriculum from domination by university entrance requirements, the National Education Association (NEA) undertook the task of reorganization and reorientation of secondary education. To this end, with Clarence Kingsley as chairman, work began in 1911 to form the Commission for the Reorganization of Secondary Education (CRSE) that was officially chartered on July 13, 1913. It was a subcommittee of CRSE, the Committee on Social Studies, that first brought the social studies onto the national stage with its recommendations in 1916. The Committee on Social Studies was, according to historian Edward Krug (1964), "one of the most successful efforts of the entire CRSE" (355).
With Thomas Jesse Jones, a former classmate and colleague of Kingsley's at the U.S. Bureau of Education, at the helm, the committee's name was changed from the Committee on Social Science to the Committee on Social Studies. This change was significant because social studies rather than social science was seen as the vehicle by which students would be exposed to social education. Jones, as exemplified in his Hampton social studies curriculum, understood social studies to be intended to produce a student inculcated with socially acceptable behaviors and values (Correia 1993).

Jones wrote in the Preliminary Statement of the Committee on Social Studies "that the high-school teachers of social studies have the best opportunity ever offered to any social group to improve the citizenship of the land" (1913, 16). Good citizenship, Jones contended, was to be the purpose of social studies. Jones continued, "Facts, conditions, theories and activities that do not contribute rather directly to an understanding of the methods of human betterment have no claim for inclusion in the social studies" (17).

While history would hold a prominent place in the committee's recommendations, the capstone course of the social studies curriculum was to be the senior year "Problems of Democracy" course. As H. Wells Singleton notes, while historians balked at "the adoption of the problems of democracy course, the sociologists and political scientists moved quickly to endorse the offering" (1980, 93). The "Problems of Democracy" course was one of the truly unique offerings forwarded by the Committee on Social Studies. Embodying in a single course the spirit of the entire report, this offering made the better understanding and study of present society the focus of an entire year of study. All the social sciences and history were to participate in this attempt at a better understanding and improvement of the present.

When analyzing the impact of the Committee on Social Studies, Wesley (1950) noted that the committee

Wesley (1937) described the NCSS relation with AHA as follows:

For years following the organization of the Council in 1921, it met at the back door of the American Historical Association and was regarded and treated as a poor relative. . The typical historian was indifferent, condescending, or scornful of the Council. ("Social Education Asks" 1970, 802)
This relationship, according to Wesley, was the reason that he, as President of NCSS in 1935, gave "the Council freedom to become a social studies organization instead of a pseudo-historical society" (802).

The first President of NCSS was Albert McKinley, editor of a teaching journal called The Historical Outlook.

According to Jenness (1990):

Concluding Remarks
Prior to the birth of NCSS, the renderings of scholars, the minutes and recommendations of learned societies, professional organizations, reports in journals, and textbooks offer information about the evolution of the content and methodology of the social studies as we know it. Historically, textbooks are the best evidence about what was actually taught because teachers have always let textbooks dictate the majority of content taught in school, and still do today. These sources reveal to us that social education early on promoted values, religion, nationalism, geography, history, and politics.
As educational organizations and historians began to establish national commissions and committees in the late 1800s, individual subjects were promoted, but there was a sympathetic ear to integrating the various social sciences with history as long as history was taught as a separate subject. Then, as the social scientists began to create their own national organizations and study committees to investigate the curriculum, the struggle for a place for each subject in the public school curriculum began to intensify.

Philosophically, scholars began to disagree about not only what should be taught but how it should be taught. Even though the content was being determined mostly by historians, they could not agree about the goals and purposes of history. Much of this discussion was going on during a progressive period in American history.

The progressive movement in America, with its goal of improving the American way of life by expanding democracy and attaining economic and social justice, influenced education and the curriculum. Progressive educators wanted to implant ideas obtained from research in the social sciences and psychology. Progressives were concerned that, because education was to be provided for all, the methods of teaching school and the meaning of education needed to be altered (Cremin 1964). Influenced in large part by John Dewey and other progressive educators, schools were increasingly called upon to educate "good citizens" and to contribute to the overall betterment of society.

The social studies did not just happen. Social studies evolved during the era under examination to include history and the social sciences, and a more integrated, relevant approach to teaching those subjects. As social studies began to find its way into the school curriculum, NCSS was formed to provide leadership and to give credibility to a subject that would be constantly challenged during the twentieth century.

American Historical Association. The Study of History in the Elementary Grades. Report of the Committee of Eight. New York: Scribners', 1990.

American Historical Association. The Study of History in Schools. Report of the AHA Committee of Seven. New York: Macmillan Co., 1899.

Barr, R. D., J. L. Barth, and S. S. Shermis. Defining the Social Studies. Bulletin 51. Washington, D.C.: NCSS, 1977.

Brown, R. "The American Geographies of Jedidiah Morse." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 31 (1941): 145-217.

Cornell, S. S. Cornell's Primary Geography, Forming Part First of a Systematic Series of School Geographies. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1854.

Correia, S. T. "For Their Own Good: An Historical Analysis of the Educational Thought of Thomas Jesse Jones." Ph.D. diss., Pennsylvania State University, 1993.

Cremin, L. A. American Education: The National Experience. New York: Harper and Row, 1980.

Cremin, L. A. The Transformation of the School. New York: Random House, Inc., 1964.

Cruikshank, A. "The Social Studies Curriculum in the Secondary School: 1893-1955." Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 1957.

Cummings, J. A. An Introduction to Ancient and Modern Geography. Boston: Cummings and Hilliard, 1813.

Davis, O. L., Jr. "Understanding the History of the Social Studies." In The Social Studies: 80th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, edited by Howard D. Mehlinger and O. L. Davis, Jr. Chicago: NSSE, 1981.

Goodrich, S. G. The Tales of Peter Parley about America. Boston: S.G. Goodrich, 1827.

Hertzberg, H. "History and Progressivism: A Century of Reform Proposals." In Historical Literacy: The Case for History in American Education, edited by Paul Gagnon. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1989.

Hofstadter, R. Social Darwinism in American Thought. Boston: Beacon Press, 1955.

Hooper, J. H., and B. A. Smith. "Children's U.S. History Textbooks, 1787-1865." Social Education 57, no. 1 (1993): 14-18.

Jarolimek, J. "The Social Studies: An Overview." In The Social Studies: 80th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, edited by Howard Mehlinger and O. L. Davis, Jr. Chicago: NSSE, 1981.

Jenness, D. Making Sense of Social Studies. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1990.

Johnson, H. Teaching of History in Elementary and Secondary Schools. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1915.

Jones, T. J. "The High School and Democracy." In the Journal of Proceedings and Addresses. The fifty-first annual meeting held at Salt Lake City, Utah, July 5-11, 1913. Ann Arbor, Mich.: NEA, 1913.

Jones, T. J. The Social Studies in the Hampton Curriculum. Hampton: Hampton Institute Press, 1906.

Keels, O. M. "The Collegiate Influence on the Early Social Studies Curriculum: A Reassessment of the Role of Historians." Theory and Research in Social Education 8, no. 3 (1980): 105-20.

Krug, E. A. The Shaping of the American High School. New York: Harper and Row, 1964.

McCulloch, J. Introduction to the History of America. Philadelphia: Young and McCulloch, 1787.

Morse, J. Geography Made Easy Being an Abridgment of the American Universal Geography, Containing Astronomical Geography . Discovery and General Description of America . General View of the United States . Particular Accounts of the United States of America, and of all the Kingdoms, States, and Republicks in the Known World, in Regard to Their Boundaries, Extent, Rivers, Lakes, Mountains, Productions, Population, Character, Government, Trade, Manufactures, Curiosities, History, c. Boston: Thomas and Andrews, 1807.

Murra, W. F. "The Birth of the NCSS-As Remembered by Earle U. Rugg." Social Education 34 (November 1970): 728-29.

National Education Association. Report of the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies. New York: American Book Co., 1894.

National Education Association. The Social Studies in Secondary Education. A Report of the Committee on Social Studies on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. Bulletin 28. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Education, 1916.

Nelson, M. R. "Emma Willard: Pioneer in Social Studies Education." Theory and Research in Social Education 15, no. 4 (Fall 1987): 245-56.

Nelson, M. R. "First Efforts toward a National Curriculum: The Committee of Ten's Report on History, Civil Government and Political Economy." Theory and Research in Social Education 20, no. 3 (1992): 242-62.

Palmer, J. J., J. C. Davis, and B. A. Smith. "Why Was Peter Parley Popular? Lessons for Social Studies Textbook Authors." Journal of Social Studies Research 15, no. 1 (1991): 41-46.

Robinson, J. H. The New History. New York: Macmillan, 1912.Ross, D. The Origins of American Social Science. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Rugg, E. "How the Current Courses in History, Geography, and Civics Came to What They Are." In Social Studies in the Elementary and Secondary Schools, Part 2: The Twenty-Second Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, edited by Harold Rugg. Bloomington, Ill.: Public School Publishing Co., 1923.

Rugg, H. O. "A Unified Social Science Curriculum." The Historical Outlook 14 (October 1923): 394.

Saxe, D. Social Studies in Schools. Albany: SUNY Press, 1991.Singleton, H. Wells. "Problems of Democracy: The Revisionist Plan for Social Studies Education." Theory and Research in Social Education 8, no. 3 (1980): 89-104.

Smith, B. A., and J. W. Vining. "Influences on the American Geographer Samuel Griswold Goodrich." Journal of Social Studies Research 13, no. 2 (1989): 10-18.

Smith, B. A., and J. W. Vining. "Samuel Griswold Goodrich aka Peter Parley: Early American Geographer." Journal of Geography 90 (1991): 271-76."Social Education Asks-What was one of your most interesting or significant experiences during your year as President of the National Council for the Social Studies? Responses of Twenty Five Former Presidents of NCSS." Social Education 34 (November 1970): 802.

Thayer, C. M. First Lessons in the History of the United States Compiled for the Use of the Junior Classes in Joseph Hoxie's Academy. New York: John F. Sibell, 1828.

Tryon, R. M. The Social Sciences as School Subjects, Part XI of the American Historical Association Report of the Commission on the Social Studies. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons, 1935.

U.S. Bureau of Interior, Bureau of Education. Statement of Chairman of the Committee on Social Studies by Thomas Jesse Jones. In Preliminary Statements by Chairmen of Committees of the Commission of the National Education Association on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. Bulletin 41. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1913.

Vining, J.W. The National Council for Geographic Education:?The First Seventy-Five Years and Beyond. Indiana, PA: National Council for Geographic Education, 1990.

Vining, J. W., and B. A. Smith. "Susanna Rowson: Early American Geography Educator." Unpublished manuscript, 1995.

Walters, W. D. "William Channing Woodbridge: Geographer." Journal of Social Studies Research 16 and 17, no. 2 (1993): 42-47.

Webster, N. A Grammatical Institute of the English Language. 3 parts. Hartford: Hudson and Goodwin, 1785.

Wesley, E. B. Teaching the Social Studies: Theory and Practice. New York: D.C. Heath and Co., 1937.

Wesley, E. B. Teaching Social Studies in High Schools. 3d ed. Boston: D.C. Heath and Co., 1950.

Whelan, M. "James Harvey Robinson, the New History, and the 1916 Social Studies Report." The History Teacher 24, no. 2 (1991): 191-202.

Woodbridge, W.C., with E. Willard. A System of Universal Geography on the Principles of Comparison and Classification. Ancient Geography as Connected with Chronology and Preparatory to the Study of Ancient History: Accompanied with an Atlas. Hartford: John Beach, 1836.

Ben A. Smith is Associate Professor in the Department of Elementary Education and the Department of Geography at Kansas State University, Manhattan. J.
Jesse Palmer is Professor of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg. Stephen T. Correia is Assistant Professor of Education at Saint Norbert College, De Pere, Wisconsin.

John Palmer Papers

John Palmer (1747-1810) was a Revolutionary War soldier and mariner from Stonington, Connecticut. During 1776 he was with Col. Babcock’s regiment at Newport, Rhode Island. Later, from 1777-1778, he served aboard the Stonington privateer REVENGE. Following that he served aboard several merchant vessels out of Stonington and New London on West Indies trading voyages between 1779 and 1785. Records indicate that he was master of the Snow BLACK PRINCESS.


Restrictions on Access

Available for use in the Manuscripts Division.

Various copying restriction apply. Guidelines are available from the Manuscripts Division.

Index Terms

This collection is indexed under the following headings in the catalog of the G. W. Blunt White Library. Researchers desiring materials about related topics, persons or places should search the catalog using these headings.

This collection is indexed under the following headings in the catalog of the G. W. Blunt White Library. Researchers desiring materials about related topics, persons or places should search the catalog using these headings.

Betsey (Brig : 1785-1786)
Black Princess (Snow)
Count D’Estainge (Sloop)
Little Rebecca (Schooner)
Readymoney (Ship)
Revenge (Privateer)

International trade
Voyages and travels

Newport (R.I.)–History
Rhode Island–History–Revolution, 1775-1783
Stonington (Conn.)–History
United States–History–Revolution, 1775-1783–Naval operations

Journals (accounts)

Administrative Information

Coll. 53, Manuscripts Collection, G. W. Blunt White Library, Mystic Seaport Museum, Inc.

16th Infantry Regiment

Mustered in: May 15, 1861
Mustered out: May 22, 1863

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
This regiment, Col. Thomas A. Davies, was accepted by the State and received its numerical designation May 9, 1861 organized at Albany and there mustered in the service of the United States for two years May 15, 1861. In May, 1863, the three years' men of the regiment were assigned to the 121st N. Y. Volunteers.
The companies were recruited principally: A at Ogdensburg B and F at Potsdam C and E at Plattsburg D at Gouverneur G at DePeyster H at Stockholm I at Malone, and K at West Chazy and Mooers.
The regiment left the State June 27, 1861 served at Washington, D. C., from June 29, 1861 in the 2d Brigade, 5th Division, Army of Northeastern Virginia, from July, 1861 in Heintzelman's Brigade, Division of the Potomac, from August 4, 1861 in Slocum's Brigade, Franklin's Division, 1st Corps, Army of the Potomac, from March 13, 1862 in the 2d Brigade, 1st Division, 6th Corps, Army of the Potomac, from May, 1862 and, commanded by Col. Joel J. Seaver, it was honorably discharged and mustered out at Albany, May 22, 1863.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 2 officers, 89 enlisted men of wounds received in action, 3 officers, 35 enlisted men of disease and other causes, I officer, 83 enlisted men total, 6 officers, 207 enlisted men aggregate, 213 of whom 2 enlisted men died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
Sixteenth Infantry.&mdashCols., Thomas A. Davies, Joseph Howland, Joel J. Seaver Lieut.-Cols., Samuel Marsh, Joel J. Seaver, Frank Palmer Majs., Buel Palmer, Joel J. Seaver, Frank Palmer, John C. Gilmore. The 16th, the 1st Northern New York regiment, was recruited mainly in St. Lawrence and Clinton counties, with one company from Franklin county. It was mustered into the service of the United States at Albany, May 15, 1861, for two years, went into camp near Bethlehem and left the state for Washington on June 26. Assigned to the 2nd brigade, 5th division, Army of Northeastern Virginia, it moved to Alexandria on July 11, from there to Manassas, where it was engaged but a very short time on the 21st and returned immediately after to Alexandria. On Sept. 15 it was ordered to Fort Lyon and attached to the 2nd brigade, 1st division, 1st corps, Army of the Potomac, which division later belonged with the same number to the 6th corps. The winter of 1861-62 was passed at Camp Franklin near Fairfax seminary, Va., where the regiment remained until April 6, when it was ordered to Catlett's station, but at once returned to camp and was then ordered to Yorktown, where it arrived on May 3. The regiment was in action at West Point, and at Gaines' mill, its loss being over 200 killed and wounded. It was present through the remainder of that week of battle, but was not closely engaged, then encamped at Harrison's landing until Aug. 16, when it returned for a brief period to Alexandria. In the battle at Cramp-ton's gap it was in advance and lost heavily in a brilliant dash was held in reserve at Antietam at Fredericksburg was posted on picket duty, and after the battle went into winter quarters near Falmouth. It shared the hardships and discomforts of the "Mud March" under Gen. Burnside and was active in the Chancellorsville campaign, with a loss at Salem Church of 20 killed, 87 wounded and 49 missing. A few days were next spent at Banks' ford, then a short time in the old camp at Falmouth, and on May 22, 1863, the regiment was mustered out at Albany. During its term of service its loss was 112 men killed or mortally wounded and 84 deaths from other causes. The three years men were transferred to the 121st N.Y.

16th Regiment NY Volunteer Infantry | Regimental Color | Civil War

On June 26, 1861, the 16th New York Volunteers arrived in New York City from Albany, New York. The men marched to Washington Square where, later that…

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More. </a></p> Family & Domains i


Feature keyPosition(s)Description Actions Graphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More. </a></p> Region i 1 – 43 Disordered Sequence analysis

<p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without manual validation.</p> <p><a href="/manual/evidences#ECO:0000256">More. </a></p> Automatic assertion according to sequence analysis i

Automatic assertion according to sequence analysis i

Automatic assertion according to sequence analysis i

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)Description Actions Graphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular type of amino acids that are over-represented within those regions.<p><a href='/help/compbias' target='_top'>More. </a></p> Compositional bias i 10 – 33 Polar residues Sequence analysis

Automatic assertion according to sequence analysis i

Automatic assertion according to sequence analysis i

Phylogenomic databases

evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups

The HOGENOM Database of Homologous Genes from Fully Sequenced Organisms

InParanoid: Eukaryotic Ortholog Groups

Identification of Orthologs from Complete Genome Data

Database of Orthologous Groups

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

TreeFam database of animal gene trees

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

Intrinsically Disordered proteins with Extensive Annotations and Literature

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