World History 300-400 AD - History

World History 300-400 AD - History


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Diocletian Persecute Christians, Tatar Warriors Break Great Wall, Gupta Dynasty, The Battle Of Adrianople, Persian Repel Arabs, Constantine The Great, Capital At Byzantium, Constantine Dies, Battle At Mursa, Battle Of Argentoratum, Ostrogoths Subjected By The Huns, Valens Killed by Visigoths, Theodosius Dies Empire Split, Roman Empire

303 AD Galerius Convinces Diocletian To Persecute Christians- Galeria the Roman Augustus convinced Diocletian to begin a general persecution of Christians in an attempt to stop the growth of the religion. Churches were burned, and clergy were imprisoned. Persecution decreased in the Western Empire by 305 A.D. and ended in the East in 313 A.D.
317 AD Tatar Warriors Break Through Great Wall- Tatar warriors broke through the Great Wall of China that had been built during the Han Dynasty to provide Northern China with protection against invasion. The Tatars drove out the Western Chin Dynasty, which was forced to move its capital to Nanking.
320 AD Gupta Dynasty- The Gupta Empire was founded in 320 by Chandragupta I. Under his successor, Samudragupta, the Gupta Empire was extended to include all of Northern India. The Gupta Empire ushered in a new golden age of Indian culture.
324 AD Constantine The Great & The Battle Of Adrianople - Constantine the Great, who was named Caesar by his troops in Britain in 312 A.D., initiated a civil war of succession against his potential rivals for the throne. In a series of engagements that culminated in 324 A.D. at the Battle of Adrianople (in today's Turkey), Constantine defeated all his rivals and became the undisputed emperor of all Rome.
325 AD Persian Repel Arabs - Persia was invaded by Arabs from Baharian and Mesopotamia. Shapur II became leader of the Persians. It was he who carried the war to the Arabs, seizing much of Arabia and making them vassal states to the Persian Empire.
330 AD Constantine The Great Establishes His Capital At Byzantium- In 330 Constantine the Great dedicated his new capital at Byzantium. The city that became known as Constantinople. It was strategically located in the East dominating the Bosphorus Straits. Constantine spent four years building his new capital.
337 AD Constantine The Great Dies And Empire Divides- In 337 A.D., Constantine died. He left his empire to his sons. The empire soon found itself divided with the Western Roman Empire governed from Rome by Constans and the Eastern Roman Empire governed by Constantius II.
351 AD Battle At Mursa- Reunites Empire- At the Battle of Mursa in present-day Croatia, Constantius defeated Magnentius. Magnentius committed suicide and the Roman Empire was once again united.
361 - 363 AD Battle Of Argentoratum- At the Battle of Argentoratum in 357 A.D., the Roman general Julian drove the Franks from Gaul, thus re-establishing the Rhine as the frontier of the Empire. Julian's victory served to ensure his popularity and he became the next Roman Emperor. But his reign lasted only 18 months: from November 361 to June 363 A.D. Julian is best known for his attempt to reinstitute paganism into Rome.
376 AD Ostrogoths Subjected By The Huns- The Huns, a nomadic Mongol people, swept in from Asia. They managed to defeat the Ostrogoth Empire. This brought to an end an empire that had dominated Eastern Europe for 200 years.
378 AD Valens Killed by Visigoths- After their defeat by the Huns, the Visigoths sought refuge in the Roman Empire. The Roman emperor Valens gave them permission to cross the Danube as long as they agreed to disarmament. In the end, the Visigoths were mistreated by Roman officials and they revolted. At the Battle at Adrianople, the Visigoths deployed mounted cavalry against the Romans. The Romans were soundly defeated by the Visigoths and Valens was killed. This represented one of the worst defeats ever suffered by the Romans. The northern borders of the Empire had been permanently pierced.
395 AD Theodosius Dies Empire Split Permantly- When Emperor Theodosius died in 395 A.D., the Roman Empire was forever split. Theodosius was succeeded by his sons Arcadius, who ruled the Eastern portion, and Honorius, who ruled the Western.

4th century

The 4th century AD was the time period which lasted from 301 AD (CCCI) through 400 AD (CD). In the West, the early part of the century was shaped by Constantine the Great, who became the first Roman emperor to adopt Christianity. Gaining sole reign of the empire, he is also noted for re-establishing a single imperial capital, choosing the site of ancient Byzantium in 330 (over the current capitals, which had effectively been changed by Diocletian's reforms to Milan in the West, and Nicomedeia in the East) to build the city soon called Nova Roma (New Rome) it was later renamed Constantinople in his honor.

The last emperor to control both the eastern and western halves of the empire was Theodosius I. As the century progressed after his death, it became increasingly apparent that the empire had changed in many ways since the time of Augustus. The two emperor system originally established by Diocletian in the previous century fell into regular practice, and the east continued to grow in importance as a centre of trade and imperial power, while Rome itself diminished greatly in importance due to its location far from potential trouble spots, like Central Europe and the East. Late in the century Christianity became the official state religion, and the empire's old pagan culture began to disappear. [ citation needed ] General prosperity was felt throughout this period, but recurring invasions by Germanic tribes plagued the empire from 376 AD onward. These early invasions marked the beginning of the end for the Western Roman Empire.

In China, the Jin dynasty, which had united the nation prior in 280, began to quickly face troubles by the start of the century due to political infighting, which led to the opportunistic insurrections of the northern barbarian tribes (starting the Sixteen Kingdoms period), which quickly overwhelmed the empire, forcing the Jin court to retreat and entrench itself in the south past the Yangtze river, starting what is known as the Eastern Jin dynasty around 317. Towards the end of the century, Emperor of the Former Qin, Fu Jiān, united the north under his banner, and planned to conquer the Jin dynasty in the south, so as to finally reunite the land, but was decisively defeated at the Battle of Fei River in 383, causing massive unrest and civil war in his empire, thereby leading to the fall of the Former Qin, and the continued existence of the Eastern Jin dynasty.

According to archaeologists, sufficient archaeological evidence correlates of state-level societies coalesced in the 4th century to show the existence in Korea of the Three Kingdoms (300/400–668 AD) of Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla.


Training as a Hoplite

Leonidas was the son of the Spartan king Anaxandrides (died c. 520 B.C.). He became king when his older half-brother Cleomenes I (also a son of Anaxandrides) died under violent, and slightly mysterious, circumstances in 490 B.C. without having produced a male heir.

Did you know? The Thermopylae pass was also the site of two other ancient battles. In 279 B.C., Gallic forces broke through Greek forces there by using the same alternate route that the Persians did in 480 B.C. In 191 B.C., the Roman army defeated an invasion of Greece by the Syrian king Antiochus III at Thermopylae.

As king, Leonidas was a military leader as well as a political one. Like all male Spartan citizens, Leonidas had been trained mentally and physically since childhood in preparation to become a hoplite warrior. Hoplites were armed with a round shield, spear and iron short sword. In battle, they used a formation called a phalanx, in which rows of hoplites stood directly next to each other so that their shields overlapped with one another. During a frontal attack, this wall of shields provided significant protection to the warriors behind it. If the phalanx broke or if the enemy attacked from the side or the rear, however, the formation became vulnerable. It was this fatal weakness to the otherwise formidable phalanx formation that proved to be Leonidas’ undoing against an invading Persian army at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 B.C.


Years: c. 300 - c. 400 Subject: History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Publisher: HistoryWorld Online Publication Date: 2012
Current online version: 2012 eISBN: 9780191735479

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Ancient Empires: Comparative Approaches in World History

This website on world empires is designed to help guide Clatsop CC students to sources in history for the Western Civilization (HST101) and World History (HST 104). These are the Fall quarter courses of year long surveys that continue through the Winter and Spring quarters.

History is the study of conflict. In these courses students may challenge and engage questions of power and conflict in their own historical context. In ancient history, warfare, empires and slavery are major threats to citizens and residents. A predominant model of history, called the Rise of the West, relies on the theories of the 19th century German historian and philosopher Georg Hegel. It emphasizes dynasties and periods of history as stages of development that favored the rise of the West. In such a view, the Rise of Western Civilization assumes the decline of the East due to Oriental despotism. The Rise of the West also privileges a narrative of history as the success of the rich and elite. In this course we'll challenge that assumption by resorting to social history to unveil the agency of the poor and non-elites as well as states and societies on the peripheries of empires. The ideology of class, race and a gender based division of labor also emerge as means for exploitation of the poor and of women. We'll use primary sources, including excerpts of literature, art and culture to supplement our reading and discussion of our main texts. Through the study of comparative empire our aim is to critique the dangerous power and risk of violence and exploitation that empires pose for those both within and on the periphery of empires.

For the Western Civilization course, our main texts on world empires are: Charles Gates, Ancient Cities, 2nd edition. (Routledge, 2011). The publisher has a useful website that is organized with a chronological periodization. In addition we'll also use Martin, Ancient Greece (Yale University Press, 1996) and N. Faulkner: Rome: Empire of the Eagles (Longman).

For the World History course, our main text is Robert Tignor et al., Worlds Together, Worlds Apart. 3rd edition (Norton, 2011). The publisher has a link to online readings and resources at http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/worlds-together-worlds-apart3/

Most of our primary sources on comparative world empires are available online for free from public domain library archives. For class we'll read texts in class to discuss problems of power and choices that were made. We shall also make use of reference and digital resources including the UNESCO World Heritage, Global Heritage Fund and Archnet Islamic Architecture databases.


The Precedent of Nicea

The council of Nicea was important for many reasons. It established a precedent. Six other ecumenical councils would follow (see the box below). Each, like Nicea, tried to settle some thorny church problem by putting difficult questions to the collective wisdom of its bishops. If at the first Nicene council, political pressure was brought to bear and fair play sometimes suffered, at later councils these tendencies were aggravated. Finally, in spite of the power struggle at Nicea and political battles in the years following, the creed of Nicea, with its clear assertion of the deity of Christ, remains fundamental to the Church to this day.


1898 Tourism and Independence

The Hotel and Steam Ship Service Act of 1898 opened our doors to the world. This act provided the government support needed for the construction of hotels and subsidized service. Since then, everything from Prohibition bringing well-to-do Americans to the closure of Cuba to Americans has impacted tourism in our country.

On July 10, 1973, The Bahamas became a free and sovereign country, ending 325 years of peaceful British rule. However, The Bahamas is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and we celebrate July 10th as Bahamian Independence Day.


Daily Life in Medieval Times, by Gies and Gies

Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion edited by Valerie Steele Scribner Library

Costume & Styles - the Evolution of Fashion from Early Egypt to the Present by Henny Harald Hansen E. P. Dutton & Co.

Fashion the Mirror of History by Ariane and Michael Batterberry

Dress in Anglo-Saxon England by Gale R. Owen-Crocker

Viking Clothing by Thor Ewing

Cloth and Clothing in Early Anglo-Saxon England AD 450 - 700 by Penelope Walton Rogers

Old Irish and Highland Dress and That of the Isle of Mann by J. Telfer Dunbar

Clothing the Clergy, Virtue and Power in Medieval Europe by Maureen C. Miller


Maya Civilization

The Maya are an indigenous people of Mexico and Central America who have continuously inhabited the lands comprising modern-day Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco, and Chiapas in Mexico and southward through Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and Honduras. The designation Maya comes from the ancient Yucatan city of Mayapan, the last capital of a Mayan Kingdom in the Post-Classic Period. The Maya people refer to themselves by ethnicity and language bonds such as Quiche in the south or Yucatec in the north (though there are many others). The `Mysterious Maya' have intrigued the world since their `discovery' in the 1840's by John Lloyd Stephens and Frederick Catherwood but, in reality, much of the culture is not that mysterious when understood. Contrary to popular imagination, the Maya did not vanish and the descendants of the people who built the great cities of Chichen Itza, Bonampak, Uxmal and Altun Ha still exist on the same lands their ancestors did and continue to practice, sometimes in a modified form, the same rituals which would be recognized by a native of the land one thousand years ago.

Maya Origins

The history of Mesoamerica is usually divided into specific periods which, taken together, reveal the development of culture in the region and, for the purposes of this definition, the emergence and cultivation of the Maya Civilization.

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The Archaic Period: 7000-2000 BCE – During this time a hunter-gatherer culture began to cultivate crops such as maize, beans and other vegetables and the domestication of animals (most notably dogs and turkeys) and plants became widely practiced. The first villages of the region were established during this period which included sacred spots and temples dedicated to various gods. The villages excavated thus far are dated from 2000-1500 BCE.

The Olmec Period: 1500-200 BCE – This era is also known as the Pre-Classic or Formative Period when the Olmecs, the oldest culture in Mesoamerica, thrived. The Olmecs settled along the Gulf of Mexico and began building great cities of stone and brick. The famous Olmec heads strongly suggest highly sophisticated skill in sculpture and the first indications of Shamanic religious practices date from this period. The enormous size and scope of Olmec ruins gave birth to the idea that the land was once populated by giants. Though no one knows where the Olmecs came from, nor what happened to them, they lay the foundation for all the future civilizations in Mesoamerica.

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The Zapotec Period: 600 BCE-800 CE – In the region surrounding modern-day Oaxaca, the cultural center now known as Monte Alban was founded which became the capital of the Zapotec kingdom. The Zapotecs were clearly influenced by (or, perhaps, related to) the Olmecs and, through them, some of the most important cultural elements of the region were disseminated such as writing, mathematics, astronomy and the development of the calendar all of which the Maya would refine.

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The Teotihuacan Period: 200-900 CE – During this era the great city of Teotihuacan grew from a small village to a metropolis of enormous size and influence. Early on, Teotihuacan was a rival of another city called Cuicuilco but, when that community was destroyed by a volcano c. 100 CE, Teotihuacan became dominant in the region. Archaeological evidence suggests that Teotihuacan was an important religious center which was devoted to the worship of a Great Mother Goddess and her consort the Plumed Serpent. The Plumed Serpent god Kukulkan (also known as Gucamatz) was the most popular deity among the Maya. Like many of the cities which now lie in ruin throughout the southern Americas, Teotihuacan was abandoned sometime around 900 CE.

The El Tajin Period: 250-900 CE – This period is also known as the Classic Period in Mesoamerican and Mayan history. The name `El Tajin' refers to the great city complex on the Gulf of Mexico which has been recognized as one of the most important sites in Mesoamerica. During this time the great urban centers rose across the land and the Maya numbered in the millions. The very important ball game which came to be known as Poc-a-Toc was developed and more ball courts have been found in and around the city of El Tajin than anywhere else in the region. Who, precisely, the people were who inhabited El Tajin remains unknown as there were over fifty different ethnic groups represented in the city and dominance has been ascribed to both the Maya and the Totonac.

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The Classic Maya Period: 250-950 CE – This is the era which saw the consolidation of power in the great cities of the Yucatec Maya such as Chichen Itza and Uxmal. Direct cultural influences may be seen, in some sites, from the Olmecs and the Zapotecs and the cultural values of Teotihuacan and El Tajin but, in others, a wholly new culture seems to have emerged (such as at Chichen Itza where, though there is ample evidence of cultural borrowing, there is a significantly different style to the art and architecture). This period was the height of the Maya civilization in which they perfected mathematics, astronomy, architecture and the visual arts and also refined and perfected the calendar. The oldest date recorded in this era is on Stele 29 in the city of Tikal (292 CE) and the latest is from an inscription on the Stele at the site of Tonina (909 CE). The city-states of the Mayan civilization stretched from Piste in the north all the way down to modern-day Honduras.

The Post-Classic Period: 950-1524 CE – At this time the great cities of the Maya were abandoned. Thus far, no explanation for the mass exodus from the cities to outlying rural areas has been determined but climate change and over population have been strongly suggested among other possibilities. The Toltecs, a new tribe in the region, took over the vacant urban centers and re-populated them. At this time, Tula and Chichen-Itza became dominant cities in the region. The widely popular conception that the Maya were driven from their cities by the Spanish Conquest is erroneous as the cities were already vacant by the time of the Spanish invasion (in fact, the Spanish conquerors had no idea the natives they found in the region were responsible for the enormous complexes of the cities). The Quiche Maya were defeated at the Battle of Utatlan in 1524 CE and this date traditionally marks the end of the Maya Civilization.

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Maya Culture

The height of the Maya Civilization in the Classic Period produced the incredible cultural advances for which they are well known. The Maya believed deeply in the cyclical nature of life – nothing was ever `born' and nothing ever `died' – and this belief inspired their view of the gods and the cosmos. Their cosmological views, in turn, encouraged their imaginative efforts in architecture, mathematics, and astronomy. Beneath the earth was the dark realm of Xibalba (pronounced `shee-Bal-ba' and translated as `place of fear') from whence grew the great Tree of Life which came up through the earth and towered into the heavens, through thirteen levels, to reach the paradise of Tamoanchan (`place of the misty sky') where beautiful flowers bloomed. In Mayan belief, however, one did not die and go to a `heaven' or a `hell' but, rather, embarked on a journey toward Tamoanchan. This journey began in the dark and treacherous underworld of Xibalba where the Xibalbans who lived there were more apt to trick and destroy a soul than help one.

If one could navigate through Xibalba, however, one could then find the way to ascend through the nine levels of the underworld, and the thirteen levels of the higher world, to paradise. The only ways in which a soul could by-pass Xibalba and travel instantly to Tamoanchan were through death in childbirth, as a sacrificial victim, in warfare, on the ball court, or by suicide (the Maya had a special goddess of suicide named Ixtab who was depicted as the rotting corpse of a woman hanging by a noose in the heavens). Once one reached Tamoanchan there was eternal happiness but, it must be noted, this paradise was not thought to actually exist in the sky but on the earth. After ascending through the thirteen levels, one did not live in the air but, rather, on a mystical mountain back on the planet. It was because of this cyclical view that the Maya did not believe there was anything wrong with human sacrifice. Those people who were offered to the gods did not `die' but simply moved on. This cosmological belief influenced every aspect of the Mayan civilization and rituals were performed regularly in caves, evoking the darkness of Xibalba, and on hills or high temples which symbolized the heights of Tamoanchan.

The great pyramids which characterize so many Mayan sites are replicas of the great mountain of the gods known as the Witzob. The cyclical nature of human existence is mirrored in the famous Maya calendar. The depictions of the many gods and goddesses all go toward their function in helping one through the cycles of life or hindering. The great religious book of the Quiche Maya, the Popol-Vuh, tells precisely this story of the cyclical nature of life through the tale of the Hero Twins Hunahpu and Xbalanque and their victory over the forces of chaos and darkness symbolized by the Lords of Xibalba. The game the twins are famous for playing, Poc-a-Toc, serves the same purpose.

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Poc-a-Toc was the most popular game among the Maya and was far more than `just a game' as it symbolized the human struggle and reflected the way the Maya viewed existence. Two opposing teams of seven men each would face each other on a ball court and try to score a small rubber ball through a vertical hoop affixed to a wall (sometimes as high as twenty feet in the air, sometimes higher) while defending their own goal. What makes the game even more impressive is that a player could not use the hands or the feet, only the hips, shoulders, head and knees. The Spanish bishop Diego de Landa wrote that watching the Maya play Poc-a-Toc was like watching lightning strikes, they moved so quickly. It has long been believed that the losing team (or the captain of the losing team) would be killed at the end of the match but recent advances in deciphering the Mayan glyphs, together with archaeological evidence, suggests it may have been the winning team or the winning captain who was given the honor of a quick death and instant passage to paradise. The game is thought to have been symbolic, not only of the victory of the hero twins over darkness, but of the cyclical nature of life. The Mayanists Schele and Matthews claim, "Many modern myths have grown up about the ballgame. The most popular says that the Maya sacrificed the winners so as to give a perfect gift to the gods. There is no evidence for this interpretation in any of the ancient or historical sources" (210). This is not quite correct, however, as glyphs at many ball courts, Chichen Itza to name only one, could be interpreted as showing the winning team or captain being sacrificed and modern Mayan daykeepers at both Altun Ha in Belize and Chichen Itza in the Yucatan point to the hope of escape from the darkness of Xibalba as the reason for the winners being executed. Whichever team was chosen to die, and under what circumstances (since teams could not have been continually sacrificed as there is evidence of `star' teams) the ball game was deeply meaningful to the Maya as more than just a spectator sport. More information on the particulars of the game, and the life of the ancient Maya in general, comes to light as more heiroglyphics are discovered and interpreted.

Mayan Hieroglyphics

The modern day difficulty in deciphering the Mayan hieroglyphics stems from the actions of the same man who, inadvertently, preserved so much of what we know of the Maya Civilization: Bishop Diego de Landa. Appointed to the Yucatan following the Spanish conquest of the north, Landa arrived in 1549 CE and instantly set himself to the task of routing out heathenism from among the Mayan converts to Christianity. The concept of a god who dies and comes back to life was very familiar to the Maya from their own deity The Maize God and they seem to have accepted the story of Jesus Christ and his resurrection easily. Even so, Landa believed that there was a subversive faction growing among the Maya which was seducing them `back to idolatry' and, having failed to crush this perceived rebellion through the avenues of prayer and admonition, chose another more direct method.

On 12 July 1562 CE, at the church at Mani, Landa burned over forty Mayan Codices (books) and over 20,000 images and stele. In his own words, “We found many books with these letters, and because they contained nothing that was free from superstition and the devil's trickery, we burnt them, which the Indians greatly lamented.” Landa went further, however, and resorted to torture to extricate the secrets of the subversives among the natives and bring them back to what he saw as the true path of the church. His methods were condemned by the other priests and he was called back to Spain to explain his actions. Part of his defense was his 1566 CE work Relacion de las Cosas de Yucatan which has preserved much of the culture Landa tried to destroy and has proved to be a valuable asset in understanding ancient Maya culture, religion, and language.

Only three books of the Maya escaped the conflagration at Mani: The Madrid Codex, The Dresden Codex, and The Paris Codex (so named for the cities where they were found many years after they were brought back from the Yucatan) which have provided scholars with a great deal of information on the beliefs of the Maya and, especially, on their calendar. The codices were created by scribes who made careful observations in astronomy (the Dresden Codex alone devotes six pages to accurately calculating the rising and positions of Venus) and their interpretations of the planets and the seasons exhibit a precision unmatched by other ancient civilizations. So important were their stories and books to the Maya that the Legend of Zamna and the Hennequen Plant describes the great goddess telling the prophet Zamna:

I want you to choose a group of families from my kingdom, and three of the wisest Chilames, to carry the writings which tell the story of our people, and write what will happen in the future. You will reach a place that I will indicate to you and you will found a city. Under its main temple you will guard the writings and the future writings.

The city of Izamal was founded, according to this legend, by Zamna (associated with the deity Itzamna) of the Itzas who placed the sacred writings under the central temple. Izamal became known as the most important pilgrimage site in the Classical Period besides Chichen Itza. Shamans (known as Daykeepers) would interpret the particular energy of the day or month for the people by consulting with the gods presiding over the various months of the Maya calendar.

Maya Calendar

There are two calendars at work simultaneously in the Maya system: the Haab, or civil calendar of 365 days in an 18 month period of 20 days each, and the Tzolkin, or sacred calendar, of 260 days divided into three groups of months of 20 days. The Haab and the Tzolkin work together, like gears interlocking in a machine, to create what is known as the Calendar Round but cannot account for dates farther in the future than 52 days. For longer calculations, the Maya devised what is known as the Long Count Calendar and is this which has attracted so much international attention in recent years regarding the end of the world on 21 December 2012 CE. As the long count calendar begins 11 August 3114 BCE, it goes into its next cycle (known as a Baktun) on 21 December 2012 CE.

There is nothing in the extant writings of the Maya to suggest any kind of cataclysm accompanies this transition. On 10 May 2012 CE it was reported that Boston University archaeologist William Saturno and Boston University student Maxwell Chamberlain, excavating at the Maya site of Xultun in Guatemala, discovered a 6x6 foot room dating to 800 CE which seems conclusively to have been a calendar workshop for Mayan scribes. The paintings and inscriptions on the walls of the room show the Maya calendar extending well beyond the year 2012 CE and that future Baktuns were understood to already be underway in the great cyclic dance of time. According to David Stuart, an expert on Maya hieroglyphs at the University of Texas at Austin, "Baktun 14 was going to be coming, and Baktun 15 and Baktun 16. . The Maya calendar is going to keep going, and keep going for billions, trillions, octillions of years into the future."

The months of the years of the Mayan calendars were governed over each by a specific god and, as these gods were eternal, they assured the continuance of the energy of their particular month. As all of life was considered one eternal cycle, the western concept of an `end of the world', so popular in Christian ideology, would have been a completely foreign concept to a Maya scribe.

Maya Today

In the modern age the Maya still farm the same lands and travel the same rivers as their ancestors did from the north in the Yucatan down to Honduras. The claim that the Maya somehow vanished, simply because their cities were found abandoned, is not only inaccurate but insulting to the over six million Maya who carry on the traditions of their ancestors. Though the region was Christianized in the 16th century CE conquest and inquisition, the old ways are still observed in a hybrid between European Catholicism and Mayan mysticism. The Daykeeper of a village still interprets the energy of a day and rituals are still performed in caves and on hills. On the island of Cozumel shrines to the Virgin Mary and the goddess Ixchel are interchangeable and, often, one and the same. A great deal has been learned about the Maya since the days when Stephens and Catherwood explored and documented the ancient ruins but, for the Maya living today, nothing of importance has ever been forgotten and the cycle of life continues on.


Contents

The programme series, described as "a landmark project", [6] is billed as 'A history of humanity' told through a hundred objects from all over the world in the British Museum's collection.

In these programmes, I'm travelling back in time, and across the globe, to see how we humans over 2 million years have shaped our world and been shaped by it, and I'm going to tell this story exclusively through the things that humans have made: all sorts of things, carefully designed, and then either admired and preserved, or used, broken and thrown away. I've chosen just a hundred objects from different points on our journey, from a cooking pot to a golden galleon, from a Stone Age tool to a credit card. [7]

Telling history through things, whether it's an Egyptian mummy or a credit card, is what museums are for, and because the British Museum has collected things from all over the globe, it's not a bad place to try to tell a world history. Of course, it can only be "a" history of the world, not "the" history. When people come to the museum they choose their own objects and make their own journey round the world and through time, but I think what they will find is that their own histories quickly intersect with everybody else's, and when that happens, you no longer have a history of a particular people or nation, but a story of endless connections. [7]

Accompanying the series is a website, described by The Guardian as "even more ambitious [than the radio series itself] that encourages users to submit items of their own for a place in world history", along with much interactive content, detailed information on all the objects featured in the radio programmes and links to 350 other museum collections across the UK. [8] The radio programmes are available on the website permanently for listening or downloading.

The museum has adapted exhibitions for the series by including additional easily identifiable plaques for the 100 objects with text based on the programme and adding a section to the gallery maps showing the location and numbers of the 100 objects.

On 18 January 2010, an hour-long special of The Culture Show on BBC2 was dedicated to the launch of the project. [9]

The first part of the series was broadcast on weekdays over six weeks between 18 January and 26 February 2010. After a short break, the series returned with the seventh week being broadcast in the week beginning 17 May 2010. [10] It then took another break in the middle of July and returned on 13 September 2010, running until the 100th object was featured on Friday 22 October 2010.

Maev Kennedy of The Guardian described the programme as "a broadcasting phenomenon", while Tim Davie, head of music and audio at BBC radio, commented that "the results have been nothing short of stunning", exceeding the BBC's wildest hopes for the programme. At the time of the writing of Kennedy's article, just before the start of the last week of the series, the radio broadcasts regularly had up to four million listeners, while the podcast downloads had totalled 10,441,884. Of these, just over half, 5.7 million, were from the UK. In addition, members of the public had uploaded 3,240 objects with the largest single contribution coming from Glasgow historian Robert Pool who submitted 120 objects all relating to the City of Glasgow, and other museums a further 1,610, and 531 museums and heritage sites across the UK had been mounting linked events – an unprecedented partnership, MacGregor said. Museums all over the world are now copying the formula, as thousands of visitors every day set out to explore the British Museum galleries equipped with the leaflet mapping the objects. [11]

Writing in The Independent, Philip Hensher described the series as "perfect radio", saying "Has there ever been a more exciting, more unfailingly interesting radio series than the Radio 4/British Museum venture, A History of the World in 100 Objects? It is such a beautifully simple idea, to trace human civilisations through the objects that happen to have survived. Each programme, just 15 minutes long, focuses on just one thing, quite patiently, without dawdling. At the end, you feel that you have learnt something, and learnt it with pleasure and interest. For years to come, the BBC will be able to point to this wonderful series as an example of the things that it does best. It fulfils, to a degree that one thought hardly possible any more, the BBC's Reithian agenda of improvement and the propagation of learning and culture." [12]

Dominic Sandbrook in The Telegraph said that the "joyously highbrow" series "deserves to take its place alongside television classics such as Kenneth Clark's Civilisation and Jacob Bronowski's The Ascent of Man." [13]

Making us human (2,000,000–9,000 BC) Edit

"Neil MacGregor reveals the earliest objects that define us as humans." [14] First broadcast week beginning 18 January 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
1 Mummy of Hornedjitef Egypt 300–200 BC BBC BM Amartya Sen, John Taylor
2 Stone (basalt) chopping tool Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 1.8–2 million years old BBC BM Sir David Attenborough, Wangari Maathai
3 Hand axe Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 1.2–1.4 million years old BBC BM Sir James Dyson, Phil Harding, Nick Ashton
4 Swimming Reindeer from Montastruc rock shelter France 13,000 years old BBC BM The Most Reverend Rowan Williams, Steve Mithen
5 Clovis spear point New Mexico, USA 13,000 years old BBC BM Michael Palin, Gary Haynes

After the Ice Age: food and sex (9,000–3,000 BC) Edit

"Why did farming start at the end of the Ice Age? Clues remain in objects left behind." [14] First broadcast week beginning 25 January 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
6 Bird-shaped pestle Papua New Guinea 4,000–8,000 years old BBC BM Madhur Jaffrey, Bob Geldof, Martin Jones
7 Ain Sakhri lovers Israel about 11,000 years old BBC BM Marc Quinn, Ian Hodder
8 Clay model of cattle Egypt about 3500 BC BBC BM Fekri Hassan, Martin Jones
9 Maya maize god statue Honduras AD 715 BBC BM Santiago Calva, John Staller
10 Jōmon pot Japan about 5000 BC BBC BM Simon Kamer, Takashi Doi

The first cities and states (4,000–2,000 BC) Edit

"What happens as people move from villages to cities? Five objects tell the story." [14] First broadcast week beginning 1 February 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
11 King Den's sandal label Egypt about 2,985 BC BBC BM Toby Wilkinson, Steve Bell
12 Standard of Ur Iraq 2600–2400 BC BBC BM Lamia Al-Gailani, Anthony Giddens
13 An Indus seal Pakistan 2600–1900 BC BBC BM Richard Rogers, Nayanjot Lahiri
14 Jadeite axe from the Alps, found in England 4000–2000 BC BBC BM Mark Edmonds, Pierre Petrequin
15 Early writing tablet Iraq 3100–3000 BC BBC BM Gus O'Donnell, John Searle

The beginning of science and literature (1500–700 BC) Edit

"4,000 years ago, societies began to express themselves through myth, maths and monuments." [14] First broadcast week beginning 8 February 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
16 Flood tablet Iraq 700–600 BC BBC BM David Damrosch, Jonathan Sacks
17 Rhind Mathematical Papyrus Egypt about 1550 BC BBC BM Eleanor Robson, Clive Rix
18 Minoan Bull-leaper Crete 1700–1450 BC BBC BM Sergio Delgado, Lucy Blue
19 Mold gold cape Wales 1900–1600 BC BBC BM Mary Cahill, Marie Louise Sørensen
20 Statue of Ramesses II Egypt about 1,250 BC BBC BM Antony Gormley, Karen Exell

Old world, new powers (1100–300 BC) Edit

"Across the world new regimes create objects to assert their supremacy." [14] First broadcast week beginning 15 February 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
21 Lachish Reliefs Iraq 700–692 BC BBC BM Paddy Ashdown, Antony Beevor
22 Sphinx of Taharqa Sudan about 680 BC BBC BM Zeinab Badawi, Derek Welsby
23 Early Zhou dynasty gui ritual vessel China 1100–1000 BC BBC BM Dame Jessica Rawson, Wang Tao
24 Paracas Textile Peru 300–200 BC BBC BM Zandra Rhodes, Mary Frame
25 Gold coin of Croesus Turkey c. 550 BC BBC BM James Buchan, Paul Craddock

The world in the age of Confucius (500–300 BC) Edit

"Can meanings hidden in friezes and flagons tell us as much as the writings of great men?" [14] First broadcast week beginning 22 February 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
26 Oxus chariot model Tajikistan 500–300 BC BBC BM Michael Axworthy, Tom Holland
27 Parthenon sculpture: Centaur and Lapith Greece about 440 BC BBC BM Mary Beard, Olga Palagia
28 Basse Yutz Flagons France c. 450 BC BBC BM Jonathan Meades, Barry Cunliffe
29 Olmec stone mask Mexico 900–400 BC BBC BM Carlos Fuentes, Karl Taube
30 Chinese bronze bell China 500–400 BC BBC BM Dame Evelyn Glennie, Isabel Hilton

Empire builders (300 BC – AD 1) Edit

"Neil MacGregor continues his global history told through objects. This week he is with the great rulers of the world around 2,000 years ago." [15] First broadcast week beginning 17 May 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
31 Coin of Lysimachus with head of Alexander Turkey 305–281 BC BBC BM Andrew Marr, Robin Lane Fox
32 Pillar of Ashoka India about 238 BC BBC BM Amartya Sen, Michael Rutland
33 The Rosetta Stone Egypt 196 BC BBC BM Dorothy Thompson, Ahdaf Soueif
34 Chinese Han lacquer cup China AD 4 BBC BM Roel Sterckx, Isabel Hilton
35 Meroë Head or Head of Augustus Sudan 27–25 BC BBC BM Boris Johnson, Susan Walker

Ancient pleasures, modern spice (AD 1–600) Edit

"Neil MacGregor explores the ways in which people sought pleasure 2,000 years ago." [14] First broadcast week beginning 24 May 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
36 The Warren Cup Israel AD 5–15 BBC BM Bettany Hughes, James Davidson
37 North American otter pipe USA 200 BC – AD 100 BBC BM Tony Benn, Gabrielle Tayac
38 Ceremonial ballgame belt Mexico AD 100–500 BBC BM Nick Hornby, Michael Whittington
39 Admonitions Scroll China AD 500–800 BBC BM Shane McCausland, Charles Powell
40 Hoxne pepper pot England AD 350–400 BBC BM Christine McFadden, Roberta Tomber

The rise of world faiths (AD 200–600) Edit

"Neil MacGregor explores how and when many great religious images came into existence." [14] First broadcast week beginning 31 May 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
41 Seated Buddha from Gandhara Pakistan AD 100–300 BBC BM Claudine Bautze-Picron, Thupten Jinpa
42 Gold coin of Kumaragupta I India AD 415–450 BBC BM Romila Thapar, Shaunaka Rishi Das
43 Silver plate showing Shapur II Iran AD 309–379 BBC BM Tom Holland, Guitty Azarpay
44 Hinton St Mary Mosaic England AD 300 – 400 BBC BM Dame Averil Cameron, Eamonn Duffy
45 Arabian bronze hand Yemen AD 100–300 BBC BM Jeremy Field, Philip Jenkins

The Silk Road and beyond (AD 400–700) Edit

"Five objects from the British Museum tell the story of the movement of goods and ideas." [14] First broadcast week beginning 7 June 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
46 Gold coins of Abd al-Malik Syria AD 696–697 BBC BM Madawi Al-Rasheed, Hugh Kennedy
47 Sutton Hoo helmet England AD 600–700 BBC BM Seamus Heaney, Angus Wainwright
48 Moche warrior pot Peru AD 100–700 BBC BM Grayson Perry, Steve Bourget
49 Korean roof tile Korea AD 700–800 BBC BM Jane Portal, Choe Kwang Shik
50 Silk princess painting China AD 600–800 BBC BM Yo Yo Ma, Colin Thubron

Inside the palace: secrets at court (AD 700–950) Edit

"Neil MacGregor gets an insight into the lives of the ruling elites 1200 years ago." [14] First broadcast week beginning 14 June 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
51 Yaxchilan Lintel 24, Maya relief of royal blood-letting Mexico AD 700–750 BBC BM Susie Orbach, Virginia Fields
52 Harem wall painting fragments Iraq AD 800–900 BBC BM Robert Irwin, Amira Bennison
53 Lothair Crystal probably Germany AD 855–869 BBC BM Lord Bingham, Rosamund McKitterick
54 Statue of Tara Sri Lanka AD 700–900 BBC BM Richard Gombrich, Nira Wickramasinghe
55 Chinese Tang tomb figures, specifically the Tang dynasty tomb figures of Liu Tingxun China about AD 728 BBC BM Anthony Howard, Oliver Moore

Pilgrims, raiders and traders (AD 900–1300) Edit

"How trade, war and religion moved objects around the globe 1000 years ago." [14] First broadcast week beginning 21 June 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
56 Vale of York Hoard England about AD 927 BBC BM Michael Wood, David and Andrew Whelan
57 Hedwig glass beaker probably Syria AD 1100–1200 BBC BM Jonathan Riley-Smith, David Abulafia
58 Japanese bronze mirror Japan AD 1100–1200 BBC BM Ian Buruma, Harada Masayuki
59 Borobudur Buddha head Java AD 780–840 BBC BM Stephen Bachelor, Nigel Barley
60 Kilwa pot sherds Tanzania AD 900–1400 BBC BM Bertram Mapunda, Abdulrazek Gurnah

Status symbols (AD 1200–1400) Edit

"Neil MacGregor examines objects which hold status and required skilful making." [14] First broadcast week beginning 28 June 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
61 Lewis Chessmen probably made in Norway, found in Scotland AD 1150–1200 BBC BM Martin Amis, Miri Rubin
62 Hebrew astrolabe Spain AD 1345–1355 BBC BM Sir John Elliott, Silke Ackermann
63 Bronze Head from Ife Nigeria AD 1400–1500 BBC BM Ben Okri, Babatunde Lawal
64 The David Vases China AD 1351 BBC BM Jenny Uglow, Craig Clunas
65 Taino Ritual Seat Santo Domingo, Caribbean AD 1200–1500 BBC BM Jose Oliver, Gabriel Haslip-Viera

Meeting the gods (AD 1200–1400) Edit

"Objects from the British Museum show how the faithful were brought closer to their gods." [14] First broadcast week beginning 5 July 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
66 Holy Thorn Reliquary France AD 1350–1400 BBC BM Sister Benedicta Ward, Right Reverend Arthur Roche
67 Icon of the Triumph of Orthodoxy Turkey AD 1350–1400 BBC BM Bill Viola, Diarmaid MacCulloch
68 Shiva and Parvati sculpture India AD 1100–1300 BBC BM Shaunaka Rishi Das, Karen Armstrong
69 Sculpture of Tlazolteotl Mexico AD 900 – 1521 BBC BM Marina Warner, Kim Richter
70 Hoa Hakananai'a Easter Island AD 1000–1200 BBC BM Sir Anthony Caro, Steve Hooper

The threshold of the modern world (AD 1375–1550) Edit

"Neil MacGregor explores the great empires of the world in the threshold of the modern era." [14] First broadcast week beginning 13 September 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
71 Tughra of Suleiman the Magnificent Turkey AD 1520–1566 BBC BM Elif Şafak, Caroline Finkel
72 Ming banknote China AD 1375 BBC BM Mervyn King, Timothy Brook
73 Inca gold llama Peru about AD 1500 BBC BM Jared Diamond, Gabriel Ramon
74 Jade dragon cup Central Asia about AD 1420–49 BBC BM Beatrice Forbes Manz, Hamid Ismailov
75 Dürer's Rhinoceros Germany AD 1515 BBC BM Mark Pilgrim, Felipe Fernandez-Armesto

The first global economy (AD 1450–1600) Edit

"Neil MacGregor traces the impact of travel, trade and conquest from 1450 to 1600." [14] First broadcast 20 September 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
76 Mechanical Galleon Germany c. 1585 BBC BM Lisa Jardine, Christopher Dobbs
77 Benin plaque: the oba with Europeans Nigeria 16th century BBC BM Sokari Douglas Camp, Wole Soyinka
78 Double-headed serpent Mexico 15th–16th century BBC BM Rebecca Stacey, Adriana Diaz-Enciso
79 Kakiemon elephants Japan late 17th century BBC BM Miranda Rock, Sakaida Kakiemon XIV
80 Pieces of eight from Spain, found in Bolivia AD 1589–1598 BBC BM Tuti Prado, William J. Bernstein

Tolerance and intolerance (AD 1550–1700) Edit

"Neil MacGregor tells how the great religions lived together in the C16th and C17th." [14] First broadcast week beginning 27 September 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
81 Shi'a religious parade standard Iran Late 17th century BBC BM Haleh Afshar, Hossein Pourtahmasbi
82 Miniature of a Mughal prince India about AD 1610 BBC BM Asok Kumar Das, Aman Nath
83 Shadow puppet of Bima Java 1600–1800 BBC BM Mr Sumarsam, Tash Aw
84 Mexican codex map Mexico Late 16th century BBC BM Samuel Edgerton, Fernando Cervantes
85 Reformation centenary broadsheet Germany AD 1617 BBC BM Karen Armstrong, Ian Hislop

Exploration, exploitation and enlightenment (AD 1680–1820) Edit

"Neil MacGregor on the misunderstandings that can happen when different worlds collide." [14] First broadcast 4 October 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
86 Akan Drum from Africa, found in the USA 18th century BBC BM Bonnie Greer, Anthony Appiah
87 Hawaiian feathered helmet Hawaii 18th century BBC BM Nicholas Thomas, Kyle Nakanelua
88 North American buckskin map USA 1774–75 BBC BM Malcolm Lewis, David Edmunds
89 Australian bark shield Australia 1770 BBC BM Phil Gordon, Maria Nugent
90 Jade bi with poem China 1790 BBC BM Jonathan Spence, Yang Lian

Mass production, mass persuasion (AD 1780–1914) Edit

"How industrialisation, mass politics and imperial ambitions changed the world." [14] First broadcast week beginning 11 October 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
91 Ship's chronometer from HMS Beagle England 1795–1805 BBC BM Nigel Thrift, Steve Jones
92 Early Victorian tea set England 1840–1845 BBC BM Celina Fox, Monique Simmonds
93 Hokusai's The Great Wave off Kanagawa Japan c. 1829–32 BBC BM Christine Guth, Donald Keene
94 Sudanese slit drum Sudan 19th century BBC BM Dominic Green, Zeinab Badawi
95 Suffragette-defaced penny England 1903 BBC BM Felicity Powell, Helena Kennedy

The world of our making (AD 1914–2010) Edit

"Neil MacGregor explores aspects of sexual, political and economic history of recent times." [14] First broadcast week beginning 18 October 2010.

Image Number Object Origin Date BBC website BM website Additional contributors
96 "Kapital", a Russian Revolutionary Plate designed by Mikhail Adamovich Russia 1921 BBC BM Eric Hobsbawm, Mikhail Piotrovsky
See
In the dull village
97 Hockney's In the dull village England 1966 BBC BM Shami Chakrabarti, David Hockney
98 Throne of Weapons Mozambique 2001 BBC BM Kofi Annan, Bishop Dinis Sengulane
99 Sharia-compliant Visa credit card United Arab Emirates 2009 BBC BM Mervyn King, Razi Fakih
100 Solar-powered lamp and charger China 2010 BBC BM Nick Stern, Aloka Sarder, Boniface Nyamu

A special radio programme on Radio 4, first broadcast on 18 May 2011, featured one of the many thousands of items nominated on the BBC website by members of the public as an object of special significance. [16] The object chosen to be featured on the programme was an oil painting depicting a young woman that was nominated by Peter Lewis. The painting, which belonged to Lewis' uncle, Bryn Roberts, was painted from a postcard photograph of Roberts' girlfriend (and later wife), Peggy Gullup, by an anonymous Jewish artist for Roberts whilst he was a prisoner of war at Auschwitz in Poland. [17] [18]

Another special programme was broadcast on 25 December 2020. Neil MacGregor and a roundtable of guests, comprising Mary Beard, Chibundu Onuzo, Scarlett Curtis, David Attenborough, and Hisham Matar, discussed adding a 101st object to represent how the world has changed in the past decade since the end of the original series. [19] The objects ultimately chosen were the British Museum's collection of 'Dark Water, Burning World' sculptures by Syrian-British artist Issam Kourbaj. They depict small, fragile boats filled with matchsticks - representing the plight of refugees of the Syrian Civil War in particular and migrants in general.

The British Museum won the 2011 Art Fund Prize for museums and galleries for its part in the A History of the World in 100 Objects series. The prize, worth £100,000, was presented to the museum by Jeremy Hunt, Secretary of State for Culture, Olympics, Media and Sport, in a ceremony at London on 15 June 2011. [20]

The chairman of the panel of judges, Michael Portillo, noted that the judges were "particularly impressed by the truly global scope of the British Museum's project, which combined intellectual rigour and open heartedness, and went far beyond the boundaries of the museum's walls". [21] The judges were also very impressed by the way that the project used digital media in ground-breaking and novel ways to interact with audiences. [21]

During 2016 and 2017 a touring exhibition of many of the one hundred objects, also titled History of the World in 100 Objects, was held in a number of countries and territories, including Australia, Japan, the United Arab Emirates, Taiwan, and China (first at the National Museum of China in Beijing, and then at Shanghai Museum). [22] [23] Due to the conditions encountered while touring different countries some exhibits had to be returned to the British Museum for maintenance during tour, and were replaced by other objects from the British Museum collections. Some controversial exhibits were excluded from the exhibition in some countries. Object 90 (Jade bi with poem) was not included in the exhibition held in China because it may have been looted from the Old Summer Palace in Beijing. In addition, a piece of Chinese brocade that had been included in the touring exhibition elsewhere was not included in the exhibition in China because it was collected from the Mogao Caves by Aurel Stein under controversial circumstances. [23]


Meet Mansa Musa I of Mali – the richest human being in all history

When we think of the world’s all-time richest people, names like Bill Gates, Warren Buffet and John D Rockefeller immediately come to mind.

But few would have thought, or even heard of, Mansa Musa I of Mali – the obscure 14th century African king who was today named the richest person in all history.

With an inflation adjusted fortune of $400 billion, Mansa Musa I would have been considerably richer than the world’s current richest man, Carlos Slim, who ranks in 22nd place with a relatively paltry $68 billion.

The list, compiled by the Celebrity Net Worth website, ranks the world’s 24 richest people of all time. The list advertises itself as the top 25, but 26 names appear in the list.

Although the list spans 1000 years, some aspects of wealth appear consistent throughout history there are no women on the list, only three members are alive today, and 14 of the top 25 are American.

The list uses the annual 2199.6 per cent rate of inflation to adjust historic fortunes – a formula that means $100 million in 1913 would be equal to £2.299.63 billion today.

Mansa Musa I ruled West Africa’s Malian Empire in the early 1300s, making his fortune by exploiting his country’s salt and gold production. Many mosques he built as a young man still stand today.

After Mansa Musa I death in 1331, however, his heirs were unable to hang on to the fortune, and it was substantially depleted by civil wars and invading armies.

Second on the list are the Rothschild family, whose descendants are still among the richest people on the planet. Starting out in banking in the late 18th Century, Mayer Amschel Rothschild’s finance house accumulated a total wealth of $350 billion. The money has since been divided between hundreds of descendants, many of whom are business leaders today.

Meanwhile John D. Rockefeller, third on the list, is the richest American to have ever lived, worth $340billion in today's USD at the time of his death in 1937.

In comparison, the poorest man on the list is 82-year-old Warren Buffett, who at his peak net worth, before he started giving his fortune to charity, was $64billion.

Here’s the full list of the ‘26 richest people of all time’:

1. Mansa Musa I, (Ruler of Malian Empire, 1280-1331) $400 billion

2. Rothschild Family (banking dynasty, 1740- ) $350 billion

3. John D Rockefeller (industrialist, 1839-1937) $340 billion

4. Andrew Carnegie (industrialist, 1835-1919) $310 billion

5. Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (last Emperor of Russia, 1868-1918) $300 billion

6. Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII (last ruler of Hyderabad, 1886-1967) $236 billion

7. William the Conqueror (King of England, 1028-1087) $229.5 billion

8. Muammar Gaddafi (former Libyan leader, 1942-2011) $200 billion

9. Henry Ford (Ford Motor Company founder, 1863-1947) $199 billion

10. Cornelius Vanderbilt (industrialist, 1794-1877) $185 billion

11. Alan Rufus (Fighting companion of William the Conqueror, 1040-1093) $178.65 billion

12. Bill Gates (Founder of Microsoft, 1955- ) $136 billion

13. William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey (Norman nobleman, ??-1088) $146.13 billion

14. John Jacob Astor (businessman, 1864-1912) $121 billion

15. Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel (English nobleman, 1306-1376) £118.6 billion

16. John of Gaunt (son of Edward III, 1330-1399) £110 billion

17. Stephen Girard (shipping and banking mogul, 1750-1831) $105 billion

18. Alexander Turney Stewart (entrepreneur, 1803-1876) $90 billion

19. Henry, 1st Duke of Lancaster (English noble, 1310-1361) $85.1 billion

20. Friedrich Weyerhaeuser (timber mogul, 1834-1914) $80 billion

21. Jay Gould (railroad tycoon, 1836-1892) $71 billion

22. Carlos Slim (business magnate, 1940- ) $68 billion

23. Stephen Van Rensselaer (land owner, 1764- 1839) $68 billion

24. Marshall Field (Marshall Field & Company founder, 1834-1906) $66 billion

25. Sam Walton (Walmart founder, 1918-1992) $65billion

26. Warren Buffett (investor, 1930- ) $64billion


Watch the video: 37. Η Βυζαντινή Κύπρος


Comments:

  1. Euryalus

    I agree with everything above per said.

  2. Medrod

    Do you consider yourself a modern person and want to know everything about goods and services with which the consumer market abounds today? Visit our website for a variety of articles that will provide you with the professional opinion of almost any product on the market today.

  3. Abdul-Basit

    Indeed, and how I had not guessed before



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