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On 19th September, 1863, General Braxton Bragg and his troops attacked union armies led by George H. Thomas and William Rosecrans at Chickamauga. Thomas was able to hold firm but Rosecrans and his men fled to Chattanooga. Bragg followed and was attempting to starve Rosecrans out when union forces led by Ulysses S. Grant, Joseph Hooker and William Sherman arrived. Bragg was now forced to retreat and did not stop until he reached Dalton, Georgia.

During the battle the Union Army lost 16,170 men (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, and 4,757 missing) whereas the Confederate Army lost 18,484 (2,312 killed, 214,674 wounded and 1,468 missing).

Chickamauga Tribe

Chickamauga Indians (Tsǐkăma’gi, a word apparently of foreign origin and probably Shawnee, Creek, or Chickasaw). The name given to a band of Cherokee who espoused the English cause in the war of the Revolution and moved far down on Tennessee River, establishing new settlements on Chickamauga Creek, in the neighborhood of the present Chattanooga.

Under this name they soon became noted for their uncompromising and never ceasing hostility. In 1782 their towns were destroyed by Sevier and Campbell, and they moved farther down the river, establishing what were afterward known as the “five lower towns,” Running Water, Nickajack, Long Island, Crow Town, and Lookout Mountain Town. Here they were continually recruited by Creeks, Shawnee, and white Tories, until they were estimated to number a thousand warriors. They continued hostilities against the Tennessee settlements until 1794, when their towns were destroyed.

Further Reading:


20 thoughts on &ldquoChickamauga Tribe&rdquo

I am looking for data on my 3x great grand Rachel Green parents in a Kentucky 1817. She did not list her parents on any paperwork I can find. Ancestry DNA has left clues within the ranks of my 4th cousins trees going back to Chief Gardiner Red Wolf Green and his second wife Rachel.One of their son’s likely Gardner Green jr and Sally Childress in Kentucky. DNA suggests connection back to Sukey Wolf Clan Green. Any information would be help full. Thanks Ralph

I am interested in documenting my Cherokee heritage

I am so excited in finding this site. Just starting to find heritage here. Still looking for my great grandmother’s maiden name. She was full blooded Chickamaugua Cherokee.

This is a pretty good article on the history.

I have been told by my Dad that we are Chickamauga Cherokee. But when I googled it, all I saw were articles saying that the Chickamauga are a “false tribe” and that they “aren’t real Cherokee”, but are mere “wanna be’s” and “poser’s”. Why are people saying that? Are the Chickamauga not a tribe?

Even though I would say yes and no, they wer not a tribe, but rather, the Chicamauga is a band of the Eastern Cherokees from Tennessee, North Carolina and Georgia. Chicamauga, Eastern Band Cherokee. I hope that this answers your question. I as well, even though I am Cherokee through my mother’s father’s family and no known knowledgeable, as of yet, what band and family clan that I am connected to on her side, but it is through my father’s mother’s family that I am of the Wolf Clan/Paint Clan of the Chicamauga, Eastern Band Cherokee.

All I know is, George Washington recognized us as a tribe in 1785, and I now have a card with the Cherokee nation. But I also understand that a bunch of Cherokee do not like us.

Might be kin, Im wolf clan from Nancy Nanehi Ward, to McCord to Dawson to Shankle to me

I seen you are of the wolf clan and pain clan of the chickamauga I am too. Chief Dragging Canoe is one of my Great Grandfather. Through his son Little Dragging Canoe. We have our line traced from Walkingstick from the OKLAHOMA Tride and from a historian they are sending the records to my cousin

James Meeks was the Chief. The CNO did everything they could to stop the Chickamakas of the South Cumberland from being recognized. We were on the books for a shot time though before Tennessee took away the charter.
Chikamaka David Meeks, that is the correct spelling as per history and the Moravian Missionary who gave him this English name. He showed up in Franklin County, Tn history before 1800 at which time he declared he was half Cherokee, to save hsi hide perhaps ad the Cherokee were still in possession in the 1770s. Whetehre he fled Running Water Town or Black Hawks camp, I don’t know. he shows up in the Tennessee State Archieves, of the Tn Indian Agency in 1813 as Chikamaka David Meeks.
Most of the County of Grundy and surrounding area is descended from him and other Chikamakas, Cherokee, Shawnee and so on. The Trail of Tears came near where, his Grandson lived in Layne’s Cove, where Grand Pa Was born in 1872, which still stands but covered in poplar siding. All his Descendants , in our line anyway including Moms Brothers, were tall lean, and muscular. Grand Pa and his generation and back were all over 6 ft tall, a the distinctive hoked nose except a couple of Uncles. One Uncle said that (some) of our Ancestors were “Bridge Builders” from Mexico, perhaps Yaqui,but how long ago, Our line is not the short squat Cherokee of Ga. Clearly Iriquoian, I think for the most part. Everyone in Franklin, Grundy, Marion counties their families, living there prior to the 1960s, the majority have Native American as the Cherokee say (heritage) we don’t have an official card and we aren’t black so most are recognized as just White People. On the other side is the descendants of Pathkiller, through the Cokers, who were both familiar to Jackson and Crocket, and mentioned in history an Grand Mother’s ancestors on Dad’s side. Chikamaka David Meeks knew them, at their mill in Cowan. The Indian Camp near Cowan on private property, may be a familiar place of David Meeks. There is a book by a Cousin in the CNo titled ‘Water on a Flat Rock’, among others that has mentions of Native American descendants familiar to most in the area. The issue that David Meeks came from the Carolina’s has some real threads but he did not die in 1810 and is not buried in NC and may have been adopted by that David Meeks. I don’t know and it seems no one else has the answers. During the Trail of Tears our Ancestors rescued many who left the march. By that time everyone in the area was known ans black Dutch or Black Irish etc, as Grand Ma Owners was, because until and in the year 1928 Alabama declared, in Law, it was against the Law to kill an Indian. Indians had no property rights nor were their lives protected til then , Whites could come in take your property and run you off even murder you but neighbors would usually not stand for it. 1928 was the year of the last Native American uprising and generated the changes giving property rights to Indians and recognition, really, as human beings. into the 1960s it was looked on as being called the same as Niger to be an Indian so Dad’s family never spoke of it and neither did Mom’s though Grand Ma would tell us to stay out of the woods the Indians would get us.her Mother died in 1933, had a bent back/ a broken back from a r aid on the Anderson cabin in Battle Creek cove. Her Sister Grand Ma’s Barbara Bell Braden Meeks name sake, Barbara was stomped to death by the “Indians.” Tobiathia Abagail Anderson Braden and Barbara Anderson’s father was Hezzikiah Carr Anderson, himself 3/4 Native American…and Grand Ma did not know or either would not speak of it.
The Chikamakas were before the Cherokee, or at least some, and were known as the ‘wild men of the mountains’…and by some, were worse then the Chickasaws in barbarity. I don’t see it in their descendants. The last true wild man of the mountain, my Uncle departed this life January 5, 2015. he lived as a wild Indian, until the early sixties, when he came in so to speak. He had curly brown hair and skin as brown as oak tannin. He was signed to be in the Davy Crockett movie, but he could not read the script…. I suggest you attend the Grundy County Historical Society meetings first Monday of the month in Tracy City tn and speak with Janelle Layne Taylor, a cousin and some others.

You are absolutely right about your COKER lineage, I too have that bloodline. And have proof of some them leaving to Indiana in 1838,
A lot of the Coker (Coque) family are eastern Cherokee or chickamauga. You can find in the Payne Mountain /Coker Creek Área there in the Cherokee National Forrest, a lot of the Coker people too. Same families.

The chickamauga still exists and you can enroll. The Chickamauga are not a Federally Recognized Tribe. By the US. But the BIA has Caregory (4) which is People of Cherokee heritage or ancestry the Chickamauga are In that category. And treaty recognized with the US as well as War Department récords will also acknowledge the Chickamauga.
Letters to congress Make mention of them. They exist. And if you want, you can enroll and be a part of the Chickamauga.

The ones who say that we are fake are generally members of a Federally-Recognized, card-carrying tribe or nation. That seems to be quite important to them. We shared the Cherokee way of life and ancestry of centuries…right up to a point in the Revolutionary War when the Treaty of Echota was signed. It was not represented of the whole of the nation and our portion of gracefully went our own way with Dragging Canoe at our head. We were condemned by the same people we had fought for. It depended on who you asked. The Spanish thought we were great as they furnished us with weapons and served as a buffer between their efforts to gain converts and land with the English and their masses of settlers who settled wherever they wanted and who also ignored the provisions of previous treaties for our hunting grounds and homes. A rock and a hard place. The Spanish left. The French sold their patch. In the meantime, our families were decimated by the diseases brought in by the Europeans and we were an easy foe to overcome and burn out. By 1830, the colonials had enough of dealing with these impudent indians calling this their home and decided to remove them at any cost. The Georgia Governor discovered gold on land which had been a part of the Chickamauga and Cherokee Indian homes and appealed to the Supreme Court to have these Indians “Removed” The Supreme Court told him that it was unconstitutional. He ignored their response and began his own Removal with his own militia. Those particular Chiefs ended up in Arkansas. Many Cherokees were on the Trail of Tears as you probably know. The Chickamauga and many others who were not rounded up in the eastern states either hid, married whites, and made some special arrangements to stay there. We were scattered to the winds. One hundred and ninety odd years later we have been finding our cousins. Our Chief is a direct descendant of Dragging Canoe. We just celebrated our first anniversary of our online group. Our future plans are acquiring lands of our own where we can gather each year for our annual ceremonies. If you would like more information, I am Sherry WhiteOwl Ottmann on Facebook and the Mother of the Chickamauga Nation. Today there are several tribes and nations of the Chickamauga throughout the country. Many are our Allies Sgi.

I have been told all my life that I am part littlefoot Indian.
I have never been able to verify that.
Can someone tell me if there is such a tribe or are they part of a tribe.
All the grandparents, and my parents have passed so I really have no help.
My grandfather is where I think it came from.
Thanks for any help

My ancestor, Ostenaco, sided with the British in the war and followed Dragging Canoe to Chickamauga creek, Tennessee. Their entire community emigrated to Indian Territory in 1837. The B.B. Cannon journal records their trip. Try reading the history of the area before trying to find individual family members. You will gain immeasurable insight.

I just found a card with my mothers name on it along with the Water Hallow Band of Chickamauga and I was hoping someone could help me out with understanding what it means. My mothers name is Pearl Labbee and the number on the card is RKA 2007-0004. Can anyone tell me what this means. Thank you

Crystal, I am new at this , from looking at some Genealogy recorders, my Grandmother is a down line of the Chickamuga tribes and Moytoy s? Thank you for sharing your information.

I am trying to get a copay of new cards for myself and my daughter and i need to add my son the rolls. Our tribe is Chickamauga Cherokee. Can anyone point me in the right direction?

I am of the chickamauga cherokee tribe, there are a few different ones. I had a very hard time finding a phone number, I called every number I could find and a sweet guy guided me the right direction. The person I have on my file is Clara Rickard at 918-866-2429. I hope this is helpful for you.

I’m trying to determine if a distant great grandfather was on the rolls. I know He was native and a chief in Chickamauga tribe. Any idea where to go to find this out?

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The Confederate Battle Plan

Though still waiting for the arrival of Longstreet’s troops, Bragg attempted to outflank Rosecrans’ left to the north and interpose his army between the Federals and their supply base at Chattanooga. He planned to strike on September 18 that day the first of Longstreet’s reinforcements arrived.

He sent Ohio-born brigadier general Bushrod Johnson’s division and Brig. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest’s hard-charging cavalry, supported by Maj. Gen. William H. T. Walker’s corps, to cross the Chickamauga at Reed’s and Alexander’s bridges, which Bragg incorrectly believed would put him north of Rosecran’s position. Striking that left flank, the Confederates would roll up the Union line, force it back into McLemore’s Cove, and destroy those who did not surrender. Meanwhile, Maj. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner’s corps would cross at Thedford’s Ford, south of the bridges, Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk would assail the enemy around Lee and Gordon’s Mill, and Lt. Gen. Daniel Harvey Hill, still farther south, would be held in reserve near Glass Mill. In essence, it was a replay of his attempt to outflank and surprise Rosecrans outside Murfreesboro the previous New Year’s Eve, when he had hoped to drive the Federals into Stones River.

Skirmishing began around 7:30 a.m., but Bushrod Johnson did not get his troops across until 4:30 that afternoon. Walker ran into Colonel John Wilder’s “Lightning Brigade” of Indiana mounted infantry. Armed with the Spencer repeating carbines they had used so effectively at Hoover’s Gap, Tennessee, to open Rosecrans’ Tullahoma Campaign and supported by Colonel Eli Lilly’s battery, Wilder’s men delayed that part of the Confederate advance for five hours. (Lilly would go on to found a major pharmaceutical company after the war.)

During the night both sides prepared for the full-scale battle they knew tomorrow would bring. The Federals were drawn up in line along the LaFayette-Chattanooga Road, approximately parallel to and west of meandering Chickamauga Creek.


Patrick Abbazia, The Chickamauga Campaign: December 1862-November 1863 (New York: Gallery Books, 1988).

Roger C. Linton, Chickamauga: A Battlefield History in Images (Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 2004).

Medora Field Perkerson, White Columns in Georgia (1952 reprint, New York: American Legacy, 1982).

Walker County, Georgia, Heritage, 1833-1983 (LaFayette, Ga.: Walker County History Committee and Walker County Historical Society, 1984).

Gordon-Lee Mansion

The Gordon-Lee Mansion is an antebellum home set on 7 acres. This is the only structure left standing that was used by both armies during the Battle of Chickamauga. The house served as Union headquarters before, seven division hospitals during and a Confederate hospital after the battle.

Open Saturdays Memorial Day - Labor Day - 11 a.m. - 3 p.m Admission: $5.00 - Adults, $1.00 - Children

Groups are welcome anytime by appointment. Lunch and dinner available for groups.

  • Free Parking
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  • Civil War Site
  • All Ages
  • Group Rates Available

Official website of the Georgia Department of Economic Development © 2021. GDEcD. All Rights Reserved. All other marks belong to their respective owners.

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Battle of Chickamauga

During the American Civil War, the Battle of Chickamauga took place from September 18 to September 20, 1863.

The battle pitted the Union's Army of the Cumberland, commanded by General William Rosecrans of Ohio, against the Confederate's Army of Tennessee, commanded by General Braxton Bragg. The Union army numbered approximately sixty thousand men, while the Confederates had forty-three thousand soldiers.

The campaign that culminated in the Battle of Chickamauga began in June 1863. Following Bragg's defeat at the Battle of Stone's River in January 1863, the Confederates withdrew to the Tennessee River, just north of the city of Chattanooga, an important railroad center in southern Tennessee. Bragg believed that Rosecrans would next advance upon Chattanooga, hoping to seize the city. Rosecrans's Army of the Cumberland did advance southward. But rather than attacking Bragg's men at the Tennessee River, the Union force flanked the Confederates by crossing the river further south.

Bragg's army retreated to Chickamauga Creek, where the Confederates waited to attack the Union soldiers. Thanks to reinforcements from Virginia, Mississippi, and Tennessee, Bragg's army now approached sixty-six thousand men. On September 19, 1864, the Union soldiers encountered the Confederate force, and the Battle of Chickamauga began. The Confederates fared well the first day of the battle, slowly driving the Union soldiers backwards in sometimes-fierce hand-to-hand combat. The battle continued on September 20, when the Confederates renewed the attack. A large number of Union troops, approximately one third of the army under Rosecrans's command, broke under an attack from General James Longstreet's Virginians. Union General George Thomas rallied part of the Union line against the Southern advance. These men stalled the Confederate attack, giving the retreating Union soldiers enough time to escape. Thomas retreated with his men that evening under the cover of darkness. In the battle, the Union lost 16,170 men to the Confederate’s 18,454 men killed, wounded or captured.

The Army of the Cumberland regrouped at Chattanooga. Confederate forces seized the heights, including Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, surrounding the city. Confederate artillery prevented supply trains or reinforcements from reaching Rosecrans's army, while it also prohibited the Union soldiers from retreating. The Union soldiers were in a dire situation. They had to surrender, starve, or attack a larger, well-fortified force. The stage was set for the Battle of Chattanooga.

The Battle:Robertson Gets Pulled, Dragging Canoe Aggros,Noobs Grab The Loot - Boss Gets Away

In the fall of 1780 Native strikes against the Middle Tennessee occupation became a regular occurence. Small parties of Chickasaws, Creeks, Chickamauga Cherokees, and possibly Delawares and Shawnees, began raiding the outlying cabins and harrassing the settlers as they traveled between the stations.

The "Battle of the Bluffs" took place a year later, after careful planning by Dragging Canoe and the Chickamaugans. The night before the attack they laid an ambush on a trail that led to Fort Nashborough. The next morning two Indians approached the palisade walls of the fort and fired, then ran off. James Robertson took the bait and led 20 mounted men out of the fort, chasing the two Indians straight into the trap where five settlers were killed and two were wounded. When the settlers got off their horses to fight, the Indian attackers yelled and stampeded the horses.


Daniel Ashley Jewell, a New England native, purchased land in Chickamauga in 1907 to relocate the textile business that he had previously started in Jewell, Georgia. Jewell saw the potential for a textile mill in Chickamauga. Envisioning that Crawfish and Crystal Springs could provide power for the mill, Jewell quickly began developing local infrastructures within Walker County. The Georgia Central Railroad, established here in 1888, could easily ship out mill products.

Partnering with W.L.L. Bowen, Jewell established the Crystal Springs Bleachery in Chickamauga in 1909. The company produced and bleached bag goods. By the early 1920s, its 350 workers made over 100,000 yards each day. Crystal Springs Bleachery’s management was kept within the Jewell family. In 1967 Thomas Wall Jewell, the youngest child of Daniel Ashley Jewell became treasurer of the company.

The shift in American manufacturing to overseas markets after World War II placed pressure on textile manufacturing companies in Georgia and the textile industry in Chickamauga was no exception. In the years following World War II, Crystal Springs Bleachery was sold and changed names several times. Dan River Mills bought the company in 1969.

After a public outcry that the mill would be closed, three local entrepreneurs Frank Pierce, Stanley Cunningham, and Steve Travin purchased the mill from Dan River. This eased fears in Chickamauga that the mill, then Chickamauga’s largest employer, would shut down. This effort was short-lived. After employing over 1,000 people in the mid-1970s, Crystal Springs Print Works eventually closed in 2013, and the mill was torn down in 2014.

Chickamauga & Chattanooga Civil War History Conference

· Conference based at Hampton Inn at 6875 Battlefield Pkwy, Ringgold, GA 30736.

· Deluxe continental breakfast for Hampton Inn guests each morning.

· Check-In will be in the hotel lobby about 1 hour before the day?s activities begin. You only need to check-in once.

· Each participant will receive a packet of tactical maps and a name badge at check-in

· Classroom sessions will be held at the Farm to Fork facility at 120 General Lee Drive in Ringgold, Ga (This is a short walk for Hampton Inn Guests.

· Bus tours will leave from the Hampton Inn parking lot at the specified time.

Hampton Inn
6875 Battlefield Pkwy
Ringgold, GA 30736


____$750 Members Conference Package (Entire program)

____$800 Non-Members Conference Package (Entire Program)

____$225 Saturday Bus Tour & Evening Mix & Mingle

____$150 Sunday Only
____$35 Civil War Seminar Polo (only available via pre-order)


We are hosting the Chickamauga/Chattanooga Tour in July 2021 while following particular guidelines and cleaning protocols. All registered guests must review and agree to the Covid-19 Cleaning Protocols, Disclaimer and Release Agreement - you can view it here. If you do not agree with the terms or do not confirm your acceptance via email or mail, you cannot attend the tour and will be issued a full refund. Questions? Contact Lark at [email protected]

Our goal is to keep all of our guests safe, and we appreciate your adherence to these new rules.

Click here for the brochure and pricing: Chickamauga & Chattanooga

POLO DETAILS: We are pre-ordering Civil War Seminar polos that will be dark green with our logo - available for pick-up at the conference. Cost is $35 and they will not be for sale at the conference . If you'd like to order one, you may contact Lark at 717-264-7101 ext. 206 or order it when you register for the event. Men's sizes XS - 4XL.


Conference based at Hampton Inn at 6875 Battlefield Pkwy, Ringgold, GA 30736. All participants are responsible for arranging hotel accommodations for the seminar, which is not included in tour price. $125/night double occupancy plus tax. Special pricing for participants based on room availability.

​ Click here for the brochure and pricing: Chickamauga & Chattanooga

· Conference based at Hampton Inn at 6875 Battlefield Pkwy, Ringgold, GA 30736.

· Deluxe continental breakfast for Hampton Inn guests each morning.

· Check-In will be in the hotel lobby about 1 hour before the day?s activities begin. You only need to check-in once.

· Each participant will receive a packet of tactical maps and a name badge at check-in

· Classroom sessions will be held at the Farm to Fork facility at 120 General Lee Drive in Ringgold, Ga (This is a short walk for Hampton Inn Guests.

· Bus tours will leave from the Hampton Inn parking lot at the specified time.

· Bus leaves from Hampton Inn

8:30 a.m. - 5 p.m. "Across the Tennessee" Bus and walking tour led by Dave Powell with historian Eric Wittenberg

On August 22, 1863, Union artillery shells fell into the city of Chattanooga. As a Union deception force menaced the city directly, other Union forces began crossing the Tennessee River at points downstream at Bridgeport, Stevenson, and Battle Creek. William S. Rosecrans?s campaign to capture Chattanooga and defeat the Confederate Army of Tennessee had begun. The Federals faced massive obstacles the river, several mountain ranges, and an expanding Confederate army, swollen with reinforcements. We will explore this rugged terrain and gain a greater appreciation of those obstacles.

· Whiteside Tennessee - Running Water Gorge, one of the rail bridges that had to be rebuilt by Federal troops.

· Bridgeport Alabama - Rosecrans advanced supply depot and where the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad crossed the Tennessee.

· Stevenson Alabama, Fort Harker and the Rail Depot, Rosecrans, main supply base.

· Caperton's Ferry - A major crossing point for the Army of the Cumberland

· Cloudland Canyon State Park Lunch

· Davis Crossroads, McLemore's Cove - Where two Union divisions were nearly destroyed.

· LaFayette GA - Gordon Hall, Bragg's Headquarters and main supply base.

· Tunnel Hill GA - the limit of the Federal advance in September 1863, and were Nathan Bedford Forrest was wounded.

· Old Stone Church, Catoosa Platform - Where Longstreet?s men de-trained after their journey from Virginia.

· Ringgold wayside, the Patrick Cleburne Statue - erected in 2009 to commemorate Cleburne's fight at Ringgold in November 1863.

· Ringgold Depot - Used by Confederates before and after Chickamauga as a supply base, and where the great locomotive chase terminated.

The rest of the evening is yours to explore the area.

Annual Luhn Memorial Silent Auction

Held during the lecture portion of the conference, historical artifacts and other items will be available for bid throughout the day. The auction will close and winners announced at the end of the day. All proceeds support battlefield preservation. Please help us support the preservation and education of America?s history!

8:30 a.m. - 12 p.m. Morning Lectures

· Lectures held at Farm to Fork Banquet room at 120 General Lee Drive in Ringgold, GA. This is a short walk from the Hampton Inn.

· Book Vendor, Owens & Ramsey Historical Booksellers, on site

· Welcome & Introduction by Eric Wittenberg, program coordinator

The Importance of Chattanooga: NPS CCNMP Park Historian James Ogden

Chattanooga offered the Federal army access to the Deep South and the Confederacy?s burgeoning military-industrial base, via the gap carved through the Southern Appalachians by the Tennessee River. It also offered access to East Tennessee, hotbed of Unionist sentiment and deemed crucial by no less than Abraham Lincoln. As such, Chattanooga was a vital Union objective from 1861 until it finally fell into Federal hands in 1863.

Chickamauga, Bloody Battle in the West: David A. Powell, author of the Chickamauga Campaign

The campaign and battle of Chickamauga, from the crossing of the Tennessee to the retreat to Rossville, August 22 to September 21, 1863. A campaign overview of the complicated strategy executed by Union General William S. Rosecrans to force the Confederate Army of Tennessee under Braxton Bragg to abandon Chattanooga on September 9, and the subsequent maneuvering that brought the two armies together along the banks of West Chickamauga Creek. Includes an overview of the action, September 18-20, 1863, the defined the battle itself.

Operation Westward Ho - James Longstreet goes west: Dr. Keith Bohannon, professor, West Georgia University

By 1863, the Confederate leadership differed sharply over how best to defend the Confederacy. The South lacked the men and resources to defend everything, but no region was willing to be sacrificed in order to concentrate those sparse resources elsewhere. Both parochialism and strategic reality too often worked at cross purposes. It was all the more remarkable, then, that the Confederate President Jefferson Davis agreed to transfer an entire army corps out of Robert E. Lee?s army in Virginia to travel to Georgia, there to aid Bragg in the defense of Chattanooga.

12 - 2 p.m. Lunch on your own

· Lectures held at Farm to Fork Banquet room at 120 General Lee Drive in Ringgold, GA. This is a short walk from the Hampton Inn.

Holding the line on the River of Death, Minty and Wilder, September 18, 1863: Eric Wittenberg, author of numerous works and expert on Civil War Cavalry operations

The Battle of Chickamauga began with a series of holding actions conducted by two Union mounted brigades, facing off against two Confederate infantry corps. The actions of Brig. Gen. Robert H. Minty?s Union Cavalry Brigade, at Reed?s Bridge, and Col. James T. Wilder?s mounted infantry command, at Alexander?s Bridge were collectively responsible for badly delaying Braxton Bragg's planned offensive. They bought precious time for Rosecrans to react, and set the stage for the much heavier fighting of September 19 and 20. Taken together, these Federals? delaying action was one of the more remarkable examples of cavalry screening conducted during the war.

Breakthrough at Brotherton Farm, September 20, 1863: Author and Park Volunteer Robert Carter.

The confusion stemming from William Rosecrans? overly-complicated order to divisional commander Thomas J. Wood to ?close up and support? fellow divisional commander Joseph Reynolds created catastrophe on the Union right. When Wood pulled out of line to try and execute that order, he opened a hole in the defense that was almost immediately exploited ? albeit unintentionally ? by James Longstreet?s massed attack of Confederate infantry, arrayed in five lines 600 yards east of the Brotherton cabin. The resultant breakthrough routed one third of the Union army.

The Battles for Chattanooga: Dave Powell

On September 21 the Federal Army of the Cumberland retreated into Chattanooga. Unable to secure the high ground of Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, Rosecrans abandoned those locations to Bragg?s Confederates. Within days, the Army of the Cumberland was besieged. Over the next two months, both sides maneuvered for advantage. Bragg tried to sever Rosecrans? remaining supply lines, while Federal reinforcements sped to Rosecrans? aid. Rosecrans was replaced, with a new man, Ulysses S. Grant, coming to take personal charge of the effort. Collectively, the battles of Brown?s Ferry and Wauhatchie at the end of October, coupled with Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge a month later in November, ended that siege and drove the Rebels back to Dalton, Georgia.

6 p.m. Dinner catered by Farm to Fork

7 p.m. A.P. Stewart - Confederate General and Park Commissioner: Sam Elliott

This talk will examine the significance of A.P. Stewart to the Chickamauga/Chattanooga campaign, both as a participant and in fostering its memory in the formation and early years of the Chickamauga Chattanooga National Military Park.

Annual Luhn Memorial Silent Auction closes following the last speaker. An announcement will be made.

· Bus leaves from Hampton Inn

8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. - Chickamauga, the first two days, September 18-19, 1863.? Bus and walking tour led by Dave Powell with historian Eric Wittenberg.

Braxton Bragg abandoned the city of Chattanooga to the Federals on September 9, 1863. By September 17, now heavily reinforced, Bragg was determined to defeat the Union Army of the Cumberland and regain that important city. On September 18, Bragg dispatched multiple columns of infantry across West Chickamauga Creek to try and turn the Union flank and interpose his forces between Chattanooga and Rosecrans?s army. The battle began on September 18, just east of Reed?s Bridge, with fighting spreading to Alexander?s Bridge soon after. The Confederates gained the crossings, but were badly delayed. Even worse, Rosecrans was now alert to his danger. Overnight he shifted George Thomas?s XIV Corps northward to the Kelly Farmstead, countering Bragg?s movement. On September 19, the fighting again opened near Reed?s Bridge, at a place called Jay?s Mill by midday the battle was general, with heavy losses on both sides. We will explore the fighting on both days.

· Reed's Bridge - the opening of the battle.

· The Alexander House site - where Wilder's Brigade was engaged

· Jay's Mill - the renewal of the fight on September 19

· Winfrey Field - Liddell's division attacks

· The monument to Carnes Tennessee Battery - where a Confederate battery was destroyed.

· Viniard Field - where the heaviest fighting occurred on the 19th

· Brotherton Field - Where the Union center almost collapsed on the evening of September 19

The rest of the evening is yours to explore the area

· Bus leaves from Hampton Inn

8:30 to 4:30 p.m. Chickamauga, the final day, September 20, 1863. Bus and walking tour led by Dave Powell with historian Eric Wittenberg.

The fighting on September 19 was heavy, costly, and inconclusive. Neither side gained a clear advantage. Rosecrans, now realizing he was outnumbered, elected to stand on the defensive. Bragg, realizing he had not yet won a clear path into Chattanooga, had to attack. Everyone on both sides expected the bloodletting to begin again with first light, but that did not happen. A series of communications mishaps delayed Bragg?s intended assault, however, and the fighting did not commence until mid-morning. Those first assaults achieved limited success, but again, command problems robbed the Confederates of victory. But a costly Union blunder occurred when Rosecrans sent an order to divisional commander Thomas Wood, an order which created a gap in the Union line just at the moment that General James Longstreet?s Southern troops poured into Brotherton Field. In an hour?s desperate fighting, the Union Right Wing was shattered and a third of Rosecrans?s army driven from the field ? including Rosecrans and two of his corps commanders. Only a stubborn defense by George Thomas on Horseshoe Ridge saved the Union from complete disaster. Then, as darkness fell, the Federals retreated to Rossville. We will track the crucial moments of this final day?s action.

· Wilder Tower, site of Rosecrans?s overnight headquarters.

· Confederate right wing headquarters ? where Bragg, Polk, and Hill quarreled

· Benjamin H. Helm Monument ? marking the death of Abraham Lincoln?s Confederate brother-in-law.

· Kelly Field - the northern end of the Union line on September 20

· Brotherton Field - The site of the fatal order of the day, and the Confederate breakthrough

· Poe Field - Where the Union army bought time for George Thomas

· Horseshoe Ridge - Where Thomas earned his name: "The Rock of Chickamauga."

· The John Ross House, Rossville Gap - the Union position at dawn, September 21.

7 to 9 p.m. Mix and Mingle - informal gathering for tour group guests in the Hampton Inn conference room. Games, music and light refreshments. BYOB. Come and go as you like!

· Bus leaves from Hampton Inn 8:30 a.m.

8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. The fight for Chattanooga. Bus tour led by Dave Powell with historian Eric Wittenberg.

On September 21, the Union army retreated inside the fortifications of Chattanooga. Unable to take the city by storm, Bragg resorted to a siege. For two months, the Confederates controlled the high ground on the south side of the Tennessee River, slowly starving the Federals inside the town. At the end of October, the Federal supply line was reopened by Union General Ulysses S. Grant, via the actions at Brown?s Ferry and Wauhatchie but the Rebels continued to control Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. It would take a series of assaults at the end of November, including a dramatic charge up Missionary Ridge, to finally drive the Army of Tennessee away from Chattanooga. Given that most of the Chattanooga battlefields are inaccessible by bus, we will spend some time seeing what we can of Chattanooga.

· Lookout Mountain - the iconic feature defining Chattanooga?s scenic wonder, and which dominated supply lines into the city.

· Wauhatchie - a rare night fight that saved the Union army.

· Orchard Knob - Grant's command post for the battle of Chattanooga

· National Cemetery - final resting place of 12,000 Union dead, including 1,500 who fell at Chickamauga.


Nearly five decades after the war, Southern officer remembers the confrontation that led to Federal retreat .

Account Of The Battle of Chickamauga

In the dimly lit log cabin of the Widow Glenn, the military map was spread. Worried Union officers of the Army of the Cumberland crowded around as Major General William S. Rosecrans, their haggard commander, asked for an assessment of the.

Did Furious Forrest Really Threaten Bragg’s Life After Chickamauga ?

Closer look at historical sources sheds doubt on whether infamous Chattanooga confrontation ever occurred.

Pure Chaos: Braxton Bragg’s subordinates sabotaged victory at Chickamauga

Tellingly, after the Confederates’ hard-won victory at Chickamauga, Braxton Bragg’s major subordinates petitioned Davis to relieve him of his command. .

Wounded at Chickamauga

It was nearly sundown on Sunday, September 20,1863.Union Brigadier General Walter Whitaker’s green troops at Chickamauga had fought Confederate Lieutenant General James Longstreet’s men furiously, back and forth, amid the smoke and.

The Snodgrass Family at Chickamauga

The fighting between William Rosecrans’ Union Army of the Cumberland and Braxton Bragg’s Confederate Army of Tennessee reached a climax on the farm of George Washington Snodgrass and the hills dubbed Horseshoe Ridge on September 20.

Book Review: The Chickamauga Campaign

The Chickamauga Campaign: A Mad Irregular Battle— From the Crossing of the Tennessee River Through the Second Day, August 22– September 19, 1863 David A. Powell Savis Beatie, $37.50 The past few decades have been good for.

Battle of Chickamauga

Information on the Battle Of Chickamauga, a Western Theater Battle in the American Civil War Battle Of Chickamauga Facts Dates September 18-20, 1863 Location Catoosa and Walker counties, Georgia Generals/Commanders Union: Maj. Gen. William.

Battle of Chickamauga and Gordon Granger’s Reserve Corps

Major General Gordon Granger's Reserve Corps of the Army of the Cumberland faced hard fighting at Chickamauga.

Account Of The Battle of Chickamauga

Overconfident and overextended, the Union Army of the Cumberland advanced into the deep woods of northwest Georgia. Waiting Confederates did not intend for them to leave. At Chickamauga Creek, the two sides collided.

Battle of Chickamauga: Colonel John Wilder’s Lightning Brigade Prevented Total Disaster

Armed with their new, lethal seven-shot Spencer rifles, Wilder's Lightning Brigade was all that stood between the Union Army and the looming disaster at Chickamauga Creek.

Battle of Chickamauga: Union Regulars Desperate Stand

Civil War Brigadier General John King's disciplined brigade of Union Regulars found itself tested as never before at Chickamauga. For two bloody days, the Regulars dashed from one endangered spot to another, seeking to save their army from.

Battle of Chickamauga: 21st Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry and Their Colt’s Revolving.

'My God, We Thought You Had a Division Here!' The 21st Ohio Infantry's unique repeating weaponry was its salvation - and nearly its undoing - at Chickamauga.

Battle of Chickamauga: Colonel John T. Wilder and the Lightning Brigade

Colonel John T. Wilder's'Lightning Brigade' did all it could to stave off Union disaster at the Battle of Chickamauga.

Book Review: Blue Lightning: Wilder’s Brigade in the Battle of Chickamauga (Richard.

Blue Lightning: Wilder’s Brigade in the Battle of Chickamauga, by RichardA. Baumgartner, Blue Acorn Press, Huntington, W.Va., 1997, $30. Among the many technological advances in weaponry that occured during the Civil War, one of the.

Book Review: Gettysburg: A Battlefield Guide (by Mark Grimsley and Brooks D.

Gettysburg: A Battlefield Guide, by Mark Grimsley and Brooks D. Simpson, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1999, $17.95, paperback. Chickamauga: A Battlefield Guide With a Section on Chattanooga, by Steven E. Woodworth, University of.

Watch the video: Chickamauga: Animated Battle Map


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