Nebraska 2016 - History

Nebraska 2016 - History

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NOTE: There are tabs for links to single variable data archives for
Temperature data: includes temperature graphs temperature climatologies (heat waves, cold waves, freeze data, etc.)
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Year 2020: Each Month Year 2021: Each Month
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Year 2010: Each Month Year 2009: Each Month Year 2008: Each Month

(see the table below for historical daily data prior to 2008)

TABLE: Historical Lincoln Daily Weather and Climate Data (external to this site)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969
1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959
1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949
1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939

Annual NWS summaries (all variables)

Weekly Summaries (all variables)

Annual Statistical Summaries (all variables)

All of the above data are the Official National Weather Service data for Lincoln, NE.

These data were acquired from the High Plains Regional Climate Center HPRCC


Men's sports Women's sports
Baseball Basketball
Basketball Beach volleyball
Cross country Bowling
Football Cross country
Golf Golf
Gymnastics Gymnastics
Tennis Rifle
Track & field † Soccer
Wrestling Softball
Swimming & diving
Track & field †
† – Track and field includes both indoor and outdoor.

Cross country Edit

The Nebraska Cornhuskers field men's and women's cross country teams, both of which have been coached by David Harris since 2012. They currently run on a course through Pioneer's Park in Lincoln. The men's team was founded in 1938 and the women's team in 1975, to help satisfy Title IX requirements.

Football Edit

Nebraska's football team competes as part of the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision in the Big Ten's West Division. Nebraska plays its home games at Memorial Stadium, where it has sold out every game since 1962. [9] The team is currently coached by Scott Frost.

Nebraska is among the most storied programs in college football history. The Cornhuskers trail only Michigan, Ohio State, and Texas in all-time victories among FBS teams, and have won more games against Power Five opponents than any other program. [10] Nebraska claims 46 conference championships and five national championships (1970, 1971, 1994, 1995, and 1997), and has won nine other national championships that the school does not claim. [11] [12] NU's 1971 and 1995 title-winning teams are considered by many to be among the best in college football history. [13] Famous Cornhuskers include Heisman Trophy winners Johnny Rodgers, Mike Rozier, and Eric Crouch, who join 22 other NU personnel in the College Football Hall of Fame. Notable among these are players Bob Brown, Guy Chamberlin, Tommie Frazier, Rich Glover, Dave Rimington, and Will Shields, and coaches Bob Devaney and Tom Osborne. [14]

The program's first extended period of success came just after the turn of the century. Between 1900 and 1916, Nebraska had five undefeated seasons and completed a stretch of 34 consecutive games without a loss, still a program record. [15] Despite a span of 21 conference championships in 33 seasons, the Cornhuskers didn't experience major national success until Bob Devaney was hired in 1962. In eleven seasons as head coach, Devaney won two national championships, eight conference titles, and coached 22 All-Americans, but perhaps his most lasting achievement was the hiring of Tom Osborne as offensive coordinator in 1969. [16] Osborne was named Devaney's successor in 1973, and over the next 25 years established himself as one of the best coaches in college football history with his trademark I-form offense and revolutionary strength, conditioning, and nutrition programs. [17] Following Osborne's retirement in 1997, Nebraska cycled through four head coaches before hiring state native Scott Frost in 2017. [18]

  • Conference championships (46): 1894, 1895, 1897, 1907, 1910–17, 1921–23, 1928, 1929, 1931–33, 1935–37, 1940, 1963–66, 1969–72, 1975, 1978, 1981–84, 1988, 1991–95, 1997, 1999
  • Division championships (10): 1996, 1997, 1999–2001, 2006, 2008–10, 2012
  • National championships (claimed in bold) (14): 1915, 1921, 1970, 1971, 1980–84, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 1999

Women's soccer Edit

In 1995, Nebraska became the first school in the Big Eight to create a varsity women's soccer program. John Walker was hired lead the new program and took his team to the NCAA tournament in only his third year. Nebraska made the tournament in the next eight seasons, not missing again until 2006. The team has reached the Sweet 16 eight times and the Elite Eight twice. Walker has earned NSCAA National Coach of the Year, NSCAA Central Region Coach of the Year and Big 12 Conference Coach of the Year during his tenure in Lincoln. As of the 2018 season, the Huskers' (and Walker's) all-time record is 318–151–39 (.664).

  • Conference championships (4): 1996, 1999, 2000, 2013
  • Conference tournament championships (6): 1996, 1998–2000, 2002, 2013
  • NCAA Tournament appearances (11): 1996–2005, 2013

Volleyball Edit

Nebraska's volleyball program is among the best in the history of the sport. The Cornhuskers have won five national championships (1995, 2000, 2006, 2015, 2017) and reached the national semifinals on ten other occasions. NU has won more games than any other college volleyball program, and ranks second in terms of national semifinal appearances, tournament wins, and tournament winning percentage. Nebraska has made the NCAA tournament for 36 consecutive seasons and has never been ranked outside of the top 20. The Cornhuskers have featured more AVCA All-Americans than any other program, including four National Player of the Year award winners. Nebraska, Penn State, and Texas are the only three programs not on the west coast to have won a women's volleyball national title. [19]

Nebraska volleyball is one of the most popular spectator attractions in the state. In 2008, AVCA executive director Kathy DeBoer described Nebraska as "the epicenter of volleyball fandom." The Cornhuskers have led the country in attendance every year since moving to the Devaney Center in 2013 and have sold out over 250 straight home matches, an NCAA record for any women's sport. Before moving to the much larger Devaney Center, Nebraska played at the NU Coliseum, which provided an unparalleled home-court advantage. While playing there, the Cornhuskers had 15 undefeated seasons at home, compiling an all-time record of 454–30 under its roof. From 2005 to 2009, Nebraska won an NCAA-record 90 consecutive home games.

The Cornhuskers have played in several of the highest-attended games in NCAA history, including the 2017 national championship game, when 18,516 fans watched Nebraska defeat Florida 3-1 at the Sprint Center in Kansas City. This broke the all-time record set just two days before, when Nebraska beat Penn State 3-2 in the national semifinals. [20]

  • Conference championships (34): 1976–92, 1994–96, 1998–2002, 2004–08, 2010, 2011, 2016, 2017
  • Conference tournament championships (Big Eight only) (18): 1976–86, 1988–91, 1993–95
  • AIAW (7) / NCAA (37) Tournament appearances: 1975–81, 1983–2019
  • NCAA Tournament national semifinals (15): 1986, 1989, 1990, 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2015–18
  • NCAA Tournament championships (5): 1995, 2000, 2006, 2015, 2017

Men's basketball Edit

While most of the University of Nebraska's athletic programs have seen large amounts of continued success, men's basketball has been an exception, accomplishing little of note since the establishment of the NCAA Tournament in 1939. Nebraska has not won a conference championship since sharing the Big Seven title with Kansas and Kansas State in 1950, and has not won the conference outright since going a perfect 12–0 in the Missouri Valley in 1916. Nebraska's lengthiest period of sustained success came in the first years of the sport's existence. The retroactive Premo-Porretta Power Poll ranked the Cornhuskers in the top ten three times between 1897 and 1903. [21]

Nebraska is the only power conference program to never to win a game in the NCAA Tournament. In fact, the first tournament trip for the Cornhuskers did not come until 1986, 46 years after the tournament began. Much of the team's success came during the tenure of Danny Nee, who coached the Huskers from 1987 to 2000. Nee is the team's all-time winningest head coach, with an overall record of 254–190. Nee led Nebraska to five of its six NCAA Tournament appearances, as well as six trips to the National Invitation Tournament, winning the NIT in 1996.

Tim Miles was hired on in 2012 to replace the fired Doc Sadler as Nebraska's head coach. Miles led the Huskers to the NCAA tournament in 2014, but failed to reach it in any of the five following seasons. Shortly after the conclusion of Nebraska's 2018–19 season, Miles was fired, and Nebraska hired former Chicago Bulls head coach Fred Hoiberg. [22]

  • Conference championships (6): 1912–14, 1916, 1949, 1950
  • Conference tournament championships (1): 1994
  • NCAA Tournament appearances (7): 1986, 1991–94, 1998, 2014
  • NIT appearances (19): 1967, 1978, 1980, 1983–85, 1987, 1989, 1995–97, 1999, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2018, 2019
  • NIT championships (1): 1996

Women's basketball Edit

Nebraska's women's basketball program started as a club sport in 1970 and became a varsity sport five years later. George Nicodemus was the first head coach, leading the Huskers to a 22–9 record and the second round of the AIAW Tournament in his first season. Nicodemus left the program in 1971, and the school cycled through head coaches before hiring Angela Beck in 1986. Beck led the Huskers to the Big Eight championship and the school's first NCAA Tournament appearance in 1988. She took the Huskers back to the NCAA Tournament in 1993 and 1996, but left the program after 1997 to pursue other opportunities. Beck's replacement was Paul Sanderford, who led Nebraska the tournament in his first three seasons. When Sanderford resigned in 2002 due to health issues, the school hired Creighton head coach Connie Yori. Under Yori's guidance, Nebraska became a fixture in the national top 25 and NCAA Tournament. In 2010, the Cornhuskers went 32-2, earned a number one seed in the NCAA Tournament, and reached the Sweet 16 for the first time in school history. Yori resigned in 2016 after a controversial investigation led by then-athletic director Shawn Eichorst concluded Yori had mistreated her players and assistant coaches. On April 11, 2016, former Huskers point guard Amy Williams was named Yori's replacement.

  • Conference championships (2): 1988, 2010
  • Conference tournament championships (1): 2014
  • AIAW/NCAA Tournament appearances (16): 1979–81, 1988, 1993, 1996, 1998–2000, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012–15
  • WNIT appearances (4): 2004–06, 2009

Bowling Edit

Bowling has been an official varsity sport at Nebraska since 1996. Prior to this, the club program won IBC national titles in 1991 and 1995. Bill Straub, who had also coached the club team, was hired to lead the varsity program and took the team to three more IBC titles, in 1997, 1999, and 2001. In 2003, the NCAA created a women's bowling tournament and the Huskers won the first two national titles. Nebraska has won four more titles since, and has never been ranked outside the top ten since national collegiate rankings debuted in 1990. In 2019, Straub retired and longtime assistant Paul Klempa was named head coach. [23]

Bowling competes as an independent, making it one of only three programs at Nebraska not affiliated with the Big Ten.

  • IBC (13) / NCAA (17) Tournament appearances: 1991–2019, 2021
  • IBC (5) / NCAA (6) national championships: 1991, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2009, 2013, 2015, 2021

Men's gymnastics Edit

Nebraska's men's gymnastics program is one of the most successful in the nation, with eight team national championships and 41 NCAA event titles. Ten Huskers have represented the United States in the Olympics. Nebraska is one of only seven Big Ten schools to sanction a men's gymnastics program.

  • All-around national championships (9): Jim Hartung (1980, 1981), Wes Suter (1985), Tom Schlesinger (1987), Kevin Davis (1988), Patrick Kirksey (1989), Dennis Harrison (1994), Richard Grace (1995), Jason Hardabura (1999)
  • Conference championships (15): 1964, 1976, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1986, 1988–90, 1992–94, 1997, 1999
  • NCAA championships (8): 1979–83, 1988, 1990, 1994

Women's gymnastics Edit

Nebraska's women's gymnastics program was established in 1975. The school's first team, led by head coach Karen Balke, was composed entirely of freshmen and sophomores. Balke left after only two seasons, and Judy Schalk was named head coach. Schalk left after coaching the Huskers to five conference titles and a national tournament bid. Rick Walton replaced Schalk and gave the school its first NCAA event title when Michele Bryant won the vault in 1990. He captured four straight Big Eight championships, each resulting in an NCAA Tournament appearance. After the 1993 season, Walton left and Dan Kendig was named head coach. In his first year, he was named the conference coach of the year after leading the Huskers to the Big Eight title. In 1997, Nebraska upset No. 1 Utah to reach the Super Six Finals for the first time in school history. Kendig won his sixth consecutive conference championship in 1999 and was named national coach of the year. Kendig's team has won four individual event titles when Heather Brink won two NCAA event titles in all around and vault in 2000 and Richelle Simpson won the all around title and the floor exercise title in 2003. To date, Nebraska has never had a losing season.

  • Conference championships (1): 2014
  • Conference meet championships (23): 1978–80, 1982, 1983, 1987–90, 1994–99, 2001–03, 2005, 2007, 2011–13
  • NCAA Tournament appearances (23) 1982, 1983, 1987–90, 1995–97, 1999–2007, 2010–12, 2014, 2015

Rifle Edit

Rifle is classified as a co-ed sport by the NCAA, but Nebraska has always composed its team solely of women. Rifle got its start as an official sport at the university in 1998. The team practices and hosts meets at the 10-point indoor firing range located in the Military and Naval Sciences Building (ROTC).

Rifle competes in the Great America Rifle Conference, making it one of only three programs at Nebraska not affiliated with the Big Ten.

  • Conference championships (1): 2006
  • Conference tournament championships (2): 2005, 2006
  • NCAA Tournament appearances (13): 2000, 2001, 2004–08, 2010, 2013–17

Men's track and field Edit

Nebraska's men's track and field team started in 1922 under coach Henry Schulte, who led the Huskers to nine conference titles before his retirement. His assistant, college football Hall of Famer Ed Weir, replaced Schulte and won five conference titles before becoming an assistant athletic director. Jerry Lee led the team for a single season before Frank Sevigne took over the program in 1956. Under Sevigne, the Huskers won 11 individual national championships, with 42 All-American athletes and 103 individual conference champions in combined indoor and outdoor events. After Sevigne retired in 1983, Gary Pepin took over the program and currently coaches both the men's and women's teams.

Indoor track and field is a winter sport, while outdoor is a spring sport.

  • Conference championships (37): 1930–33, 1936–38, 1940–42, 1949, 1951, 1963, 1972, 1973, 1978, 1985, 1987–89, 1992, 1994–98, 2000–05, 2007, 2015, 2016
  • Conference championships (29): 1921–24, 1926, 1929, 1932, 1933, 1936, 1937, 1939–42, 1950, 1966, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1995, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2009, 2010, 2013, 2016

Women's track and field Edit

Nebraska's women's track and field program was created during the 1975–76 academic year and began competition in 1976. The team's first head coach was Roger Capan, but he left after only one season at the school and was replaced by Carol Frost, whose son Scott would later quarterback the Cornhuskers to a national championship in 1997. Frost left Nebraska after the 1980 season, and Gary Pepin took over the program. Two years later Pepin assumed control of the men's program as well, a dual role he still holds.

Indoor track and field is a winter sport, while outdoor is a spring sport.

  • Conference championships (24): 1980–97, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2011, 2012
  • AIAW (1) / NCAA (2) national championships: 1982–84

Wrestling Edit

Nebraska's wrestling program started over 100 years ago and is one of the most storied programs in collegiate wrestling. The school's first official team began competition in 1910 under the guidance of head coach R.G. Clapp. Current head coach Mark Manning has led the Huskers since 2000 and twice won conference coach of the year. [24] Former Nebraska standouts include 2000 Olympic gold medalist and 2004 bronze medalist Rulon Gardner, and two-time NCAA champion Jordan Burroughs, who won the 2011 Freestyle World Championships Istanbul. Burroughs later won gold at the 2012 Olympic Games in London.

  • National championships (11): Mike Nissen (1963 – 123 lbs), Jim Scherr (1984 – 177 lbs), Bill Scherr (1984 – 190 lbs), Jason Kelber (1991 – 126 lbs), Tony Purler (1993 – 126 lbs), Tolly Thompson (1995 – HWT), Brad Vering (2000 – 197 lbs), Jason Powell (2004 – 125 lbs), Paul Donahoe (2007 – 125 lbs), Jordan Burroughs (2009 – 157 lbs 2011 – 165 lbs)
    appearances (53): 1928, 1942, 1946, 1949, 1954, 1958, 1959, 1961–63, 1973, 1975, 1978, 1980–2019
  • Conference championships (7): 1911, 1915, 1924, 1949, 1993, 1995, 2009

Baseball Edit

Nebraska's baseball program made the NCAA Tournament just three times before Dave Van Horn was hired to lead the Huskers in 1998. NU won its first conference tournament in Van Horn's second season, and in 2000 advanced to a super regional for the first time. The Cornhuskers reached the College World Series, held annually in nearby Omaha, in each of the following two seasons, but failed to win a game in either appearance. Van Horn compiled a record of 214–92 during his five-year tenure as head coach, but left NU following the 2002 season to coach at Arkansas, his alma mater. Former Van Horn assistant Mike Anderson led Nebraska back to the College World Series in 2005, winning a school-record 57 games. Darin Erstad replaced Anderson in 2011, but won just one conference title in eight years before retiring. In 2020, NU hired Texas A&M assistant Will Bolt to lead the program.

In 2002, the Huskers moved from the aging Buck Beltzer Stadium to Hawks Field at Haymarket Park, often considered one of the best collegiate baseball facilities in the country. Nebraska has been in the top 30 for average attendance every year since the move to Hawks Field.

  • Conference championships (8): 1929, 1948, 1950, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2017, 2021
  • Conference tournament championships (4): 1999–2001, 2005
  • NCAA District (2) / NCAA Tournament (17) appearances: 1948, 1950, 1979, 1980, 1985, 1999–2003, 2005–08, 2014, 2016, 2017, 2019, 2021
  • College World Series appearances (3): 2001, 2002, 2005

Beach volleyball Edit

Nebraska announced on January 9, 2013 that it would add beach volleyball as the school's 22nd intercollegiate sport. The Nebraska Cornhuskers women's beach volleyball team began play in the spring of 2013. In 2016, the NCAA began holding an officially sponsored beach volleyball tournament (previously the sport was run by the AVCA), but Nebraska did not attempt to qualify, feeling it didn't make sense from a logistical standpoint. Despite the sport's increasing popularity (55 teams now compete in Division I), Nebraska runs one of the only beach volleyball programs in the Midwest, and generally plays its entire season during a spring break trip to California and Hawaii. Nebraska's beach roster is composed entirely of players from its indoor program, and according to head coach John Cook, the school plans to use beach volleyball primarily as a training tool for indoor for the time being.

On March 8, 2017, Nebraska hosted Missouri Baptist at the Hawks Championship Center. The match was closed to the public because of space limitations, but was noteworthy as the first collegiate beach volleyball match to take place in the state of Nebraska. The Cornhuskers swept the Spartans 5–0.

Through eight seasons of competition, Nebraska's overall record is 46–50. Beach volleyball competes as an independent, making it one of only three programs at Nebraska not affiliated with the Big Ten.

Beginning in 2006, CBS College Sports Network, American Volleyball Coaches Association (AVCA) and the Association of Volleyball Professionals (AVP) sponsored the Collegiate Beach Volleyball Championship, an invitational tournament. In 2007 Nebraska (Jordan Larson and Sarah Pavan) won a competition among eight colleges, which featured two players per school. [25]

Men's golf Edit

Nebraska's golf program began in 1935, led by College Football Hall of Fame coach Dana X. Bible. The team's greatest successes came under longtime head coach Larry Romjue, who took NU to all four of its NCAA Championship appearances. The program has been coached by Mark Hankins since 2018.

  • Conference championships (2): 1936, 1937
  • NCAA Championship appearance (4): 1973, 1978, 1998, 1999

Women's golf Edit

NU established a women's golf program in 1975, initially under the leadership of men's coach Larry Romjue. In 1979, Nebraska hired its first coach exclusively to coach women's golf. The Cornhuskers have made the NCAA Championship three times. The program is currently coached by Lisa Johnson.

Softball Edit

Nebraska's softball program started in 1970, before it was an official NCAA sport. Since the NCAA sanctioned softball in 1983, the Cornhuskers have made eight appearances in the Women's College World Series, held annually in Oklahoma City, and won the tenth-most games of any program. Rhonda Revelle became the program's head coach in 1992, and since then she has won 937 games, more than any other coach in Nebraska athletics history. Revelle has won seven conference titles and was inducted into the National Fastpitch Coaches Association Hall of Fame in 2010.

  • Conference championships (10): 1982, 1984–88, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2014
  • Conference tournament championships (9): 1982, 1984–88, 1998, 2000, 2004
  • NCAA Tournament appearances (25): 1982, 1984, 1985 (vacated), 1987, 1988, 1995–2007, 2009–11, 2013–16
  • Women's College World Series appearances (8): 1982, 1984, 1985 (vacated), 1987, 1988, 1998, 2002, 2013

Men's tennis Edit

Nebraska's men's tennis team was established in 1928 and has made the NCAA Championship twice, most recently in 2011. Five Cornhuskers have won conference championships, and 17 have been named all-conference selections. In 1989, Steven Jung was the NCAA Singles runner-up and was named NU's first All-American. [26] Jung is the only men's tennis player in the Nebraska Athletic Hall of Fame. [27]

NU made its only two NCAA appearances under Kerry McDermott, who led the program for 37 years. Following the 2018 Big Ten Tournament, Nebraska announced McDermott would not return as head coach, and Sean Maymi was hired as his replacement. [28] [29]

The University of Nebraska Athletic Hall of Fame was established in 2015. 22 former student-athletes were honored in the inaugural class. [30]

Heather Brink – Gymnastics Phil Cahoy – Gymnastics Janet Kruse – Volleyball Nicole Martial – Track & field Nancy Metcalf – Volleyball Johnny Rodgers – Football Will Shields – Football

Bob Brown – Football Karen Dahlgren – Volleyball Denise Day – Softball Rich Glover – Football Dave Hoppen – Basketball Scott Johnson – Gymnastics

Francis Allen – Gymnastics Rhonda Bladford-Green – Track & field Greichaly Cepero – Volleyball Carol Frost – Track & field Wes Suter – Gymnastics Ed Weir – Football Grant Wistrom – Football

Amanda Burgoyne – Bowling Eric Crouch – Football Sam Francis – Football Maurtice Ivy – Basketball Jordan Larson – Volleyball Terry Pettit – Volleyball

The University of Nebraska–Lincoln runs club programs for the following sports: badminton, barbell, baseball, bowling, broomball, climbing, crew, curling, cycling, dodgeball, golf, men's hockey, women's hockey, judo, men's lacrosse, women's lacrosse, rifle, men's rugby, women's rugby, runners, men's soccer, women's soccer, softball, sport officials, swim, table tennis, taekwondo, tennis, men's ultimate Frisbee, women's ultimate Frisbee, men's volleyball, women's volleyball, water polo, and water ski.

A total of 107 athletes from NU have combined to compete in 155 Olympic Games. Nebraska athletes have won 51 medals, including 13 gold medals, while representing 28 countries. Merlene Ottey is Nebraska's most decorated Olympian, winning nine medals and competing in seven Olympic Games, a record for track and field competitors. [31] [32]

Olympic medals won by Nebraska athletes
Athlete Sport Medals
Penny Heyns Swimming
Don Quarrie Sprinting
Adam Pine Swimming
Curtis Tomasevicz Bobsleigh
Rulon Gardner Wrestling
Charlie Greene Sprinting
Jordan Burroughs Wrestling
Trent Dimas Gymnastics
Jim Hartung
Scott Johnson
Jim Mikus
Linetta Wilson Sprinting
Merlene Ottey
Therese Alshammar Swimming
Jordan Larson Volleyball
Shelley-Ann Brown Bobsleigh
Matt Lindland Wrestling
Kayla Banwarth Volleyball
Kelsey Robinson
Lori Endicott
Dan Brand Wrestling
Bill Scherr
Brian Duensing Baseball
Keith Gardner Sprinting
Ximena Restrepo
Emma Johnson Swimming
Karina LeBlanc Soccer
Brittany Timko
Priscilla Lopes Hurdles
Danielle Page Basketball

Home venues Edit

Venue Built Sport(s)
City Campus
Bob Devaney Sports Center 1976 Gymnastics
Swimming & diving
Track & field
Ed Weir Stadium 1975 Track & field
Hawks Championship Center 2006 Beach volleyball
Memorial Stadium 1923 Football
Military and Naval Science Building 1947 Rifle
East Campus
East Campus Bowling Lanes 1977 Bowling
Off campus
Barbara Hibner Soccer Stadium 2015 Soccer
Bowlin Stadium 2001 Softball
Hawks Field 2001 Baseball
John Breslow Ice Hockey Center 2015 Ice hockey (club)
Pinnacle Bank Arena 2013 Basketball
Pioneers Park Nature Center 1963 Cross country
Sid and Hazel Dillon Tennis Center 2015 Tennis
Wilderness Ridge Golf Club 2001 Golf

Additional facilities Edit

Venue Purpose Built Location
Cook Pavilion Student recreation 1987 City campus
Hawks Championship Center Football practice facility 2006 City campus
Osborne Athletic Complex Athletic administration
Athletic health and medicine
Strength & conditioning
2006 City campus
Nebraska Coliseum Basketball (former home venue)
Volleyball (former home venue)
Wrestling (former home venue)
Student recreation
1926 City campus
Recreation and Wellness Center Student recreation 1926 East campus
17th & Vine Outdoor Complex
14th & Avery Outdoor Complex
Fleming Fields
Student recreation N/A City campus
City campus
East campus

Herbie Husker – Herbie Husker first appeared in 1974 and has gone through major changes since, most recently in 2003 to update the overall appearance of the state's agricultural workers and general public. This particular alteration has proved to be incredibly unpopular among fans, who cite the new mascot's boring appearance as evidence in favor of the old mascot and its unique design. Herbie was named National Mascot of the year for the 2005 football season.

Lil' Red – Lil' Red was created before the 1993 season to appeal to younger fans. He was the national champion at the NCA National Mascot Competition in 1999 and was introduced into the Mascot Hall of Fame in 2007. [33]

Prior to Herbie Husker and Lil' Red, Nebraska cycled through a variety of mascots. Colonel Cobb appeared in the 1940s and 1950s with a corn cob head and green body. Both Husker Man and Colonel Cobb were used throughout the 1960s. Harry Husker, the predecessor to Herbie, was the school's official mascot from 1965 to 1973. [34] [35]

Decades of high attendance and well-traveling crowds across all sports have earned Nebraska fans a reputation for being fiercely loyal and dedicated. The school's athletic department proclaimed their fans "the greatest fans in college football" in an inscription above each of the 24 gates at Memorial Stadium. [36] [37] In 2001, President George W. Bush stated that he "can't go without saying how impressed I am by the Nebraska fan base. Whether it be for women's volleyball or football, there's nothing like the Big Red." [38]

Memorial Stadium is sometimes referred to as The Sea of Red due to the home crowd's propensity to wear a certain color. Nebraska has sold out every home football game since November 3, 1962, 368 in a row, the longest sellout streak in college athletics. [39] Cornhuskers fans are noted for often applauding the visiting team as they leave the field at the end of the game. [40] Nebraska fans are regarded as some of the best-traveling fans in the country. The most notorious example of this took place when Nebraska traveled to play Notre Dame in 2000. An estimated 35,000 people were wearing red at Notre Dame Stadium as No. 1 Nebraska beat No. 25 Notre Dame in overtime. [41] [42]

Nebraska's volleyball program has sold out 274 consecutive matches between the Nebraska Coliseum and Devaney Center, the longest streak of its kind in women's college sports. The Cornhuskers have led the country in attendance for five straight seasons, and have played in eight of the ten highest-attended volleyball matches ever played. Nebraska's victory over Florida in the 2017 national championship match set a new record with 18,516 fans in attendance.

Nebraska has produced more total and football academic All-Americans than any other school . Through the 2016–17 academic year, the school has had 330 academic All-Americans across all sports. [43] [44]



The speaker presides over the legislature in the absence of the lieutenant governor, but the day-to-day matters of the body are dealt with by the Executive Board. The board includes the speaker, a chairperson, a vice-chairperson, and six other senators. The chairperson and vice-chairperson are chosen for two-year terms by the legislature as a whole. Senators are classified into three geographically-based caucuses each caucus elects two board members. Finally, the chairman of the Appropriations Committee serves, but cannot vote on any matter, and can only speak on fiscal matters. Α]

Current leadership and members

The Nebraska State Senate is officially a nonpartisan chamber click here for more information about why sitting members have political party affiliations listed.


See also: Comparison of state legislative salaries
State legislators
SalaryPer diem
$12,000/yearFor legislators residing within 50 miles of the capitol: $55/day. For legislators residing more than 50 miles from the capitol: $151/day.

Swearing in dates

Nebraska legislators assume office the first Wednesday after the first Monday in January. Β]

Membership qualifications

To be eligible to serve in the Nebraska Senate, a candidate must be: Γ]

  • Registered to vote
  • At least 21 years of age
  • A resident of Nebraska, and specifically a resident of the legislative district he or she wishes to serve, for at least one year prior to the general election


At every turn in the development of what we now know as the western, women writers have been instrumental in its formation. Yet the myth that the western is male-authored persists. Westerns: A Women’s History debunks this myth once and for all by recovering the women writers of popular westerns who were active during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when the western genre as we now know it emerged.

Victoria Lamont offers detailed studies of some of the many women who helped shape the western. Their novels bear the classic hallmarks of the western—cowboys, schoolmarms, gun violence, lynchings, cattle branding—while also placing female characters at the center of their western adventures and improvising with western conventions in surprising and ingenious ways. In Emma Ghent Curtis’s The Administratrix a widow disguises herself as a cowboy and infiltrates the cowboy gang responsible for lynching her husband. Muriel Newhall’s pulp serial character, Sheriff Minnie, comes to the rescue of a steady stream of defenseless female victims. B. M. Bower, Katharine Newlin Burt, and Frances McElrath use cattle branding as a metaphor for their feminist critiques of patriarchy. In addition to recovering the work of these and other women authors of popular westerns, Lamont uses original archival analysis of the western-fiction publishing scene to overturn the long-standing myth of the western as a male-dominated genre.


Origin of name: From an Oto Indian word meaning ??flat water?

10 largest cities (2014est.): Omaha, 446,599 Lincoln, 272,996 Bellevue, 53,936 Grand Island, 51,236 Kearney, 32,469 Fremont, 26,500 Hastings, 24,915 North Platte, 24,327 Norfolk, 24,444 Columbus, 22,630

Geographic center: In Custer Co., 10 mi. NW of Broken Bow

Number of counties: 93

Largest county by population and area: Douglas, 517,110 (2010) Cherry, 5,961 sq mi.

2010 resident census population (rank): 1,826,341 (38). Male: 906,296 (49.6%) Female: 920,045 (50.4%). White: 1,572,838 (86.1%) Black: 82,885 (4.5%) American Indian: 18,427 (1.0%) Asian: 32,293 (1.8%) Other race: 79,109 (4.3%) Two or more races: 39,510 (2.2%) Hispanic/Latino: 167,405 (9.2%). 2010 percent population 18 and over: 74.9 65 and over: 13.6 median age: 36.2.

French fur traders first visited Nebraska in the late 1600s and fought with Spain over control of the territory. The Unites States eventually obtained part of the area in 1803 through theLouisiana Purchase.Soon after,eastern Nebraska was explored by Lewis and Clark in 1804??1806. A few years later in 1812-1813, Robert Stuart pioneered the Oregon Trail across Nebraskaand the first permanent non-Native American settlement was established at Bellevue in 1823.

Western Nebraska was acquired by treaty following the Mexican War in 1848. The Union Pacific began its transcontinental railroad at Omaha in 1865. In 1937, Nebraska became the only state in the Union to have a unicameral (one-house) legislature in whichmembers are elected to it without party designation.

Nebraska is a leading grain-producer with bumper crops of sorghum, corn, and wheat. More varieties of grass, valuable for forage, grow in this state than in any other in the nation. The state's sizable cattle and hog industries make Dakota City and Lexington among the nation's largest meat-packing centers.

Manufacturing has become diversified: Firms making electronic components, auto accessories, pharmaceuticals, and mobile homes have joined such older industries as clothing, farm machinery, chemicals, and transportation equipment. Oil was discovered in 1939 and natural gas in 1949.

Among the principal attractions are Agate Fossil Beds, Homestead, and Scotts Bluff National Monuments Chimney Rock National Historic Site a recreated pioneer village at Minden SAC Museum near Ashland the Stuhr Museum of the Prairie Pioneer Grand Island Boys Town the Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery and the Lied Center for the Performing Arts at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln the State Capitol in Lincoln the Joslyn Art Museum in Omaha the Henry Doorly Zoo in Omaha Museum of Nebraska Art in Kearney Museum of Nebraska History in Lincoln and the University of Nebraska State Museum in Lincoln.

2016 Nebraska Revised StatutesChapter 29 - CRIMINAL PROCEDURE29-3506 Criminal history record information, defined.

Criminal history record information shall mean information collected by criminal justice agencies on individuals consisting of identifiable descriptions and notations of issuance of arrest warrants, arrests, detentions, indictments, charges by information, and other formal criminal charges, and any disposition arising from such arrests, charges, sentencing, correctional supervision, and release. Criminal history record information shall include any judgment against or settlement with the state as a result of a wrongful conviction pursuant to the Nebraska Claims for Wrongful Conviction and Imprisonment Act. Criminal history record information shall not include intelligence or investigative information.

This section has no application to presentence reports and does not restrict the use of criminal history information in determining an appropriate sentence. State v. Guida, 230 Neb. 961, 434 N.W.2d 522 (1989).

Disclaimer: These codes may not be the most recent version. Nebraska may have more current or accurate information. We make no warranties or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the information contained on this site or the information linked to on the state site. Please check official sources.

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Nebraska History Timeline

The very first were Indians who came here more than 10,000 years ago. They were nomadic hunters who were looking for an area where big game animals were plentiful. Over the centuries there have been other Indian immigrants, such as the Oto tribe which came here about 300 years ago. Nebraska, which was admitted to the union as the 37th state on March 1, 1867, two years after the end of the American Civil War, contains some of the nation's best ranchland and farmland.

16th Century Nebraska History Timeline

1541 - Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led an expedition across the US Southwest into Kansas.He claimed the entire territory for Spain

17th Century Nebraska History Timeline

1682 - French explorer Rene Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle, traveled down the Mississippi River to its mouth. He claimed all the land drained by the Mississippi, as well as its tributaries, for France.

18th Century Nebraska History Timeline

1714 - Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont is the first recorded European in Nebraska.

1720 - Pedro de Villasur was sent to out from Santa Fe on June 16, 1720 to scout enemy positions on the plains. His party included forty-five white soldiers, sixty Pueblo Indians, a priest and an interpreter. He made several attempts to trade with the Pawnees but was openly rebuffed. Pedro de Villasur paused to regroup and plan his next move. As Pedro de Villasur and his group camped near present day Columbus, Nebraska, they were attacked by the Pawnees. Most of the Pueblos had sensed danger and left before the battle began. Pedro de Villasur was killed before he could reach his weapons and only thirteen Spaniards made it back to Santa Fe.

1739 - While looking for a path to Santa Fe, Pierre and Paul Mallet traveled north along the Missouri river to the mouth of the Niobrara. Here they concluded they were traveling in the wrong direction. They traveled south parallel to the Missouri and crossed the Platte and Republican rivers on their way. Eventually, they found their way to Sante Fe.

1763 - Treaty of Paris, All land west of the Mississippi River became Spanish.

1789 - Juan Munier met the Ponca Indians living near the mouth of the Niobrara river. He was given exclusive trading rights with the Ponca's by the Spanish.

1793 - Jacques D'Eglise began trading with the Mandan Indians and was given exclusive trading rights by the Spanish government for his exploration efforts.

19th Century Nebraska History Timeline

1800 - Treaty of San Ildefonso. The Spanish found it costly to explore this new country and could not see the rewards being worth the investment. They returned the Louisiana to France in 1800.

1803 - The US acquires Nebraska in the Louisiana Purchase

1804 - Lewis and Clark reach the eastern edge of Nebraska

1806 - Explorer Zebulon Pike visits southern Nebraska

1812 - Manuel Lisa builds Fort Lisa on the Missouri River near Omaha.

1819 - US Army established Nebraska's first military post, Fort Atkinson

1820 - Major Stephen H. Long made an expedition to the rocky mountains and back. His opinion of the plains was not favorable. This opinion, shared by many, could explain the reluctance of settlers to make the prairie their home. The plains most certainly offered new challenges to the pioneer.

1823 - Bellevue becomes the first permanent settlement in Nebraska.

  • The Indian Removal Act allows the US government to relocate Native Americans west of the Mississippi River.
  • The Oregon Trail. Jedediah Smith, David Jackson, and William Sublette set out from St. Louis. They followed a route up the Missouri river to the Platte river. Instead of following the Missouri north as Lewis and Clark did, they went west on the Platte river. These were the first travelers on what was to become the Oregon Trail. By the 1840s the southern pass of the trail went west from Independence MO to Kansas City, northwest to Ft. Kearney (Nebraska) and then turned west again to Fort Vancouver (Present Vancouver, Washington).
  • Traders took the first wagons to the Rocky Mountains

1832 - Steamboat Yellowstone began the first annual fur-trading voyages up the Missouri River

1833 - Rev. Moses Merrill and his wife, Eliza Wilcox Merrill, were the first resident missionaries to the Nebraska Indians. They arrived in Bellevue in 1833

1834 - The Trade and Intercourse Act prohibits whites from trespassing on Native American lands west of the Mississippi River.

1842-44 - The word "Nebraska" first began to appear in publications in 1842 when John Fremont explores the Platte Valley and names Nebraska

1844 - The first bill to organize the new Nebraska Territory, introduced in Congress on Dec. 17, 1844, by Illinois Sen. Stephen Douglas, failed to pass.

1848 - Fort Kearny is established along the Oregon Trail

1854 - Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed by the US Congress on May 30, 1854. It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders. The Act served to repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´.

  • The territory's population grew from 2,732 in November 1854 to 28,841
  • Estimated 82 black people in the state. By 1900 that number had risen to 6,269.

April 3, 1860 - Oct. 24, 1861 - Pony Express riders also followed the Platte River valley, carrying mail to the west coast.

1862 - The Homestead Act and the Pacific Railroad Act are passed.

  • Nebraska joined the Union as the 37th state on March 1, 1867.
  • The people elected David Butler as the first governor
  • Lincoln became the state capital on July 29.

1868 - Lincoln replaces Omaha as the state capital.

  • Oglala Sioux leader Red Cloud and other Sioux sign the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie.
  • The Union Pacific Railroad is completed terminus is at Omaha.

1870 - Robert Anderson was the first black person to homestead in Box Butte County.

1875 - A new state constitution is adopted.

1877 - Oglala Sioux leader Crazy Horse surrenders in Nebraska.

1892 - The Populist or People's Party holds its first national convention in Omaha.

1895 - Silas Robbins was the first black person to be admitted to the Nebraska State Bar Association

1896 - William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska is nominated as the presidential candidate by both the Democratic and Populist parties.

20th Century Nebraska History Timeline

1902 - Reclamation Act of 1902, which earmarked federal aid for irrigation projects.

1933 - Gov. Charles Bryan imposed a moratorium on farm foreclosures.

1937 - The unicameral state legislature holds its first session.

1939 - Petroleum discovered in southeastern Nebraska

1944 - Congress passed the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Project, which authorized the creation of flood control dams, reservoirs and hydroelectric plants in states drained by the Missouri River, including Nebraska.

1948 - Strategic Air Command establishes headquarters near Omaha

1963 Race riot in Omaha led to the creation of the Omaha Human Rights Commission

1968&1969 - Race riots required intervention by the military and the National Guard.

1974 - Gerald Ford of Omaha becomes President of the United States

1982 - Initiative 300 prohibits individual farmers from selling their land to corporations.

1987 - Legislature adopted two measures that authorized tax incentives for businesses intending to create new jobs in Nebraska.

21st Century Nebraska History Timeline

2000 - Train derailment in Scottsbluff spilled 80,000 gallons of chemical benzene, evacuations ordered

  • Pipe bombs found in six residential mailboxes, domestic terrorism suspected
  • drought devastated crops, caused invasion of grasshopper, losses more than $1 billion

2005 - Legislature voted to allow convicted felons to vote after completion of sentence and two-year waiting period

2006 - Cuba bought $30 million in food from Nebraska

2007 - Gunman killed eight, injured five during shooting at Omaha mall

2009 - Legislature voted to change capital punishment from electrocution to lethal injection
2011 -

  • Flooding of Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant by Missouri River raised fears that power plants could be vulnerable to weather extremes
  • Nebraska legislautre voted to reroute controversial TransCanada pipeline to avoid Sandhills and Ogallala aquifer

2012 - Four tornadoes struck around North Platte, injured four, damaged homes, farm buildings, derailed 31 railroad cars

Nebraska health insurance marketplace: history and news of the state’s exchange

Morrill County, Nebraska | Image: Ric Ergenbright/Danita Delimont /

Key takeaways

    (no qualifying event needed). . . . , but they were replaced for 2020 by a Medica short-term plan that’s offered in partnership with Farm Bureau. with initial plan terms up to 364 days.

Nebraska exchange overview

Nebraska uses the federally facilitated exchange, but with a marketplace plan management model, which means that residents enroll in coverage through, but the state oversees various aspects of the plans available for sale in the exchange.

Medica had been the only insurer in Nebraska’s exchange since 2018, but Bright Health joined the exchange, statewide, for 2020. Both insurers are continuing to offer plans statewide in 2021.

Nebraska expanded Medicaid under the ACA as of October 2020, thanks to a ballot measure that voters approved in 2018. So non-elderly adults with income up to 138 percent of the poverty level are now eligible for Medicaid in Nebraska. This is likely to result in fewer people enrolled in private plans through the exchange for 2021, because people with income between 100 percent and 138 percent of the poverty level were eligible for premium subsidies for 2020, but will be eligible for Medicaid instead when their coverage renews for 2021. The expansion of Medicaid also means that there is no longer a coverage gap in Nebraska: People with income below the poverty level are no longer ineligible for any financial assistance with their health coverage.

When can I enroll in health insurance in Nebraska?

Because of the COVID pandemic and the additional premium subsidies provided by the American Rescue Plan, there’s an additional enrollment opportunity in 2021. Enrollment and plan changes for individual and family health insurance are normally only available during the annual open enrollment period in the fall, or during a special enrollment period triggered by a specific qualifying life event. But in 2021, there’s a special enrollment window that runs through August 15, 2021.

Nebraska residents can enroll or make a plan change during this window, regardless of whether they experience a qualifying event. People who are uninsured or enrolled in a plan directly through an insurance company (ie, off-exchange) can use this enrollment window to switch to a plan through the Nebraska exchange, as premium subsidies are only available in the exchange (and some people are newly eligible for these subsidies as a result of the American Rescue Plan). And existing Nebraska exchange enrollees might find that their best option is to switch to a different plan in order to better take advantage of the newly enhanced subsidies.

After August 15, 2021, North Dakota residents will need a qualifying event in order to enroll or make a plan change for 2021 coverage. Open enrollment for 2022 coverage will start on November 1, 2021, with plan selections effective January 1, 2022.

Average pre-subsidy premiums decreased by about 2.6% for 2021

Bright and Medica are both continuing to offer plans statewide in Nebraska’s exchange for 2021. Average rates decreased for both insurers, and were lower than the rates the insurers initially filed. The following average rate changes were implemented for 2021 (most enrollees receive premium subsidies these rate changes apply to full-price premiums):

  • Bright Health: 2.61% average decrease. According to SERFF filing number BRHP-132268892, Bright had 8,038 covered members in Nebraska in 2020.
  • Medica: 2.59% average decrease. According to SERFF filing number MEDI-132402244, Medica had 76,109 covered members in Nebraska in 2020 (the majority, nearly 46,000, were enrolled in Medica Insure, which is a tiered network plan nearly 26,000 were enrolled in Medica with CHI Health, and about 4,400 were enrolled in Elevate by Medica, which contracts with Nebraska Methodist and Nebraska Medicine).

So overall average premiums in Nebraska are about 2.6% lower in 2021 than they were in 2020. And CMS reported that the average benchmark premium in Nebraska is 2% lower for 2021 than it was for 2020.

Depending on a person’s income and age, there are an increasing number of free or very low-cost plans available in Nebraska for 2021, including free Gold plans. As an example, consider a 50-year-old in Lincoln who earns $30,000/year. For ease of comparison, we’ll keep him the same age in future years (in reality, premiums increase as a person ages, even if the insurer’s overall rates do not increase).

  • In 2019, he was eligible for a premium subsidy of $840/month, and had access to seven plans with no premium at all after the subsidy was applied.
  • In 2020, his subsidy amount dropped to $745. But because of the influx of new plans (Bright joined the exchange for 2020) and lower-cost options from Medica, he had access to even more free plans (nine of them) after the subsidy was applied, despite the fact that the subsidy amount was smaller.
  • For 2021, his subsidy amount increased to $765/month (before the American Rescue Plan further increased subsidy amounts nationwide), and 15 of the 22 available plans are free. The free plans are mostly at the bronze level, but they include one free gold plan and one free silver plan.
  • For 2021, after the American Rescue Plan was enacted, he qualifies for a subsidy of $875/month. 15 of the 22 plans are still free, and the other seven range from $62/month to $155/month.

For perspective, average unsubsidized premiums in Nebraska’s exchange are much higher than the national average, at $765/month in 2020 (down from $866/month in 2019), versus $595/month across all states that use In Nebraska, 95% of exchange enrollees receive premium subsidies (versus a nationwide average of 86%), but the lower premiums and additional competition in 2020 were no doubt beneficial for enrollees who weren’t subsidy-eligible (many people who weren’t subsidy-eligible in prior years are eligible for a subsidy in 2021 and 2022, due to the American Rescue Plan’s temporary elimination of the “subsidy cliff”).

Rate changes in prior years

  • 2015: The Nebraska Department of Insurance released a sampling of 2015 rates in September 2014. They illustrated 15 different scenarios, with varying household sizes, ages, and geographic locations across the state. For each carrier, they showed the rate change for each scenario, along with an average for all 15 scenarios from each carrier.Across the four carriers that were originally slated to sell plans for 2015 (including CoOportunity), the unweighted average for the 15 sample scenarios was a 10.7 percent increase in premiums. But one carrier — Coventry — had an average rate decrease of 3.4 percent. And while Assurant’s average rate hike across the sample scenarios was 16 percent, their prices in 2014 (off-exchange) were lower than those offered by the exchange plans — they gained market share in 2014 even though they were only available off-exchange (Assurant ended up leaving the market, nationwide, at the end of 2015.An analysis conducted by the Commonwealth Fund and published in December 2014 found an average rate increase of 10 percent for a 40 year-old non-smoker in the Nebraska exchange, when looking at all plans and metal levels. But for silver plans, the rate increase was an average of just 4 percent, and it’s likely that the rate increase became smaller once CoOportunity’s plans were no longer for sale, since the CO-OP had raised its rates considerably for 2015.
  • 2016: In the fall of 2015, the Nebraska Department of Insurance published final approved rates for 2016:
    • Blue Cross Blue Shield of Nebraska: 14.8 percent average rate increase
    • Coventry: 21.89 percent average rate increase (but actual rates are still lower than BCBS in every sample scenario).
    • UnitedHealthcare of the Midlands: New to the exchange, but the approved rates for 2016 were lower than BCBS and Coventry for every sample scenario (note that United only participated in the exchange in 2016 they did not offer plans for 2017).
    • Medica: New to the exchange for 2016. Approved rates for 2016 were lower than BCBS and Coventry in some scenarios, and higher in others.
    • Medica: 51.3 percent
    • Aetna: 40.5 percent (a sample of approved rate increases for various ages and zip codes)

    Participation in Nebraska’s exchange peaked with four insurers in 2016, but had dropped to just one by 2018. By 2020 there were two insurers offering plans

    In 2014, the first year that the ACA-created exchanges were operational, Nebraska’s exchange had three insurers offering plans: Aetna, CoOpportunity (an Iowa-based ACA-created CO-OP), and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Nebraska.

    Time (Assurant) joined the exchange for 2015, but CoOpportunity stopped selling plans in December 2014 and was subsequently liquidated remaining members had to transition to new plans by March 2015. So for 2015, Nebraska’s exchange had plans from Time, Aetna, and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Nebraska.

    But Assurant announced in June 2015 that they would exit the individual market nationwide, and their plans were no longer available as of 2016. But two new carriers joined the Nebraska exchange for 2016: UnitedHealthcare of the Midlands, and Medica. So for 2016, there were four insurers offering plans in Nebraska’s exchange: Aetna, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Nebraska, UnitedHealthcare, and Medica.

    But UnitedHealthcare announced fairly early in 2016 that they would exit the exchanges in most states — including Nebraska — at the end of 2016. United only joined the Nebraska exchange for 2016 – they weren’t available in the exchange in 2014 and 2015. But their rates were competitive in Nebraska. They offered plans state-wide, and in 65 of the state’s 93 counties, United offered at least one of the two least-expensive silver plans in the exchange.

    At that point, it looked like three insurers would participate in Nebraska’s exchange in 2017, and the Nebraska Department of Insurance confirmed by phone in August 2016 that Aetna, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Nebraska, and Medica all planned to offer coverage in the state’s exchange for 2017.

    Although Aetna had announced that they would exit nearly all of the 34 exchanges where they participated in 2016, Nebraska officials confirmed that the carrier was still planning to sell coverage in the Nebraska exchange for 2017 (Nebraska was one of four states where Aetna continued to offer plans in the exchange in 2017).

    Nebraska Insurance Director Bruce Ramge noted, however, that nothing was final until the carriers signed their agreements with HHS in late September 2016, and said “hopefully we won’t see any other dropouts.” But in late September, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Nebraska announced that they would not offer plans in the exchange in 2017 after all, due to mounting losses. They noted that they had lost $140 million on exchange plans since 2014, and viewed continued participation in the exchange as unsustainable. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Nebraska continued to sell two plans — bronze and catastrophic — outside the exchange for 2017 (in June 2017, BCBSN announced that they would entirely exit the ACA-compliant individual market at the end of 2017. They noted that in order to have continued to offer off-exchange ACA-compliant plans in 2018, they would have had to increase premiums by 50 percent, which would have likely resulted in healthy people dropping coverage while sick people remained on the plans, further increasing overall losses).

    So for 2017, Aetna and Medica offered plans in the Nebraska exchange. But Aetna announced in May 2017 that they would not offer on- or off-exchange plans in Nebraska in 2018. In February 2017, Aetna’s CEO, Mark Bertolini, had said that the ACA exchanges were in a “death spiral.” Aetna only offered plans in four state exchanges in 2017, including Nebraska. Bertolini also said that Aetna was the only insurer in the Nebraska exchange in 2017, but Medica also offered plans, and grew their membership significantly in the state in 2017.

    Medica offers plans statewide in Nebraska, and has opened an office in Omaha. Their 2017 enrollment in Nebraska increased five-fold over their 2016 enrollment. In 2016, there were 6,276 Medica members in Nebraska. By February 2017, more than 35,500 Nebraska residents had made their initial premium payments for 2017 Medica plans (mostly through the exchange, but that total included off-exchange enrollments as well). Enrollment in the individual market tends to peak early in the year, but Medica’s rate filing later in 2017 indicated that they had 35,269 members.

    Medica indicated in February 2017 that they were committed to remaining in Nebraska’s individual market, regardless of the future of the ACA and But there was considerable uncertainty among insurers in the spring of 2017, as the Trump Administration waffled on whether or not they would continue to pay cost-sharing reductions to insurers, and on how strongly the ACA’s individual mandate would be enforced going forward.

    Ultimately, Medica did remain in the exchange, statewide. And their membership grew significantly in 2018, as they were the only insurer offering plans in the exchange. In addition, anyone with 2018 off-exchange ACA-compliant individual market coverage in Nebraska also had Medica coverage, as the other insurers had left the market (the bulk of Medica’s membership is on-exchange, however, as the insurer is not actively marketing off-exchange plans).

    Medica is once again the only insurer offering plans in the Nebraska exchange in 2019. And as described below, Medica has also partnered with the Nebraska Farm Bureau to offer association health plan coverage to farmers in Nebraska for 2019.

    For 2020, however, Bright Health joined Nebraska’s exchange, offering plans statewide. Both insurers are continuing to offer plans statewide for 2021.

    2021 enrollment down about 2% from 2020’s record high

    88,688 people enrolled in health plans through Nebraska’s health insurance exchange during the open enrollment period that ended in December 2020. That was down about 2% from the exchange’s record high enrollment the year before, when 90,845 people enrolled. Nebraska was one of only 11 states that use that saw a year-over-year enrollment increase from 2019 to 2020. But for 2021, the majority of the states saw an increase in enrollment, while Nebraska saw a decrease.

    Across all states that use, there were average enrollment decreases every year from 2017 through 2020. This is due to a variety of factors, including the elimination of the individual mandate penalty, the Trump administration’s relaxed rules for short-term health plans and association health plans, and the administration’s decision to slash funding for outreach and enrollment assistance (this funding has been restored by the Biden administration). But enrollment in Nebraska’s exchange increased in 2018 and again in 2020, bucking the general trend of steady declines that we’ve seen in the majority of states that use

    For perspective, here’s a look at individual market QHP (private plans) enrollment numbers in Nebraska over the years:

    • 2014: 42,975 people enrolled.
    • 2015: 74,152 people enrolled.
    • 2016: 87,835 people enrolled.
    • 2017: 84,371 people enrolled.
    • 2018: 88,213 people enrolled.
    • 2019: 87,416 people enrolled
    • 2020: 90,845 people enrolled.
    • 2021: 88,688 people enrolled.

    Medica is offering short-term health coverage to Nebraska Farm Bureau members involved in agriculture

    During an open enrollment period that runs from November 1 to December 15, 2020 (the same window that applies to ACA-compliant plans), people who have been Nebraska Farm Bureau members since at least August 31, 2020 and who are actively involved in agriculture can enroll in a 364-day short-term plan offered by Medica in partnership with Farm Bureau.

    These plans first became available for 2020. The SERFF filing number for the 2020 plan is MEDI-132097655, and it contains information about the transition from the association health plan (AHP) that Medica offered in 2019 in partnership with Farm Bureau. A federal judge overturned the Trump administration’s AHP rules in 2019, and although the ruling was appealed, sole proprietors without employees cannot enroll in AHPs until if and when the Trump administration’s rules are restored. So for 2020, Medica and Farm Bureau switched to a short-term health plan instead, and it’s being offered again for 2021.

    But this short-term plan is different from most short-term plans on the market. Although it does have a gender rating component, it is not medically underwritten for individual applicants, and the coverage is similar to what Medica offers in the ACA-compliant individual market. But because enrollees have to be Farm Bureau members who are actively engaged in agriculture, overall health of the risk pool can be expected to be better than the general population (enrollees need to be healthy enough to work and be involved in agriculture). In addition, applicants must have been Farm Bureau members since at least the end of August in order to sign up during the annual fall enrollment period people cannot just join the Farm Bureau at the last minute and then enroll in the health plan. Nebraska Farm Bureau said that the plans are about 25 percent less expensive than ACA-compliant plans for 2020, and about 15 percent less expensive for 2021.

    Members of the 2019 AHP that was offered by Farm Bureau/Medica can transition to the short-term plan for 2020. Premiums were an average of 4.8 percent lower than they were on the 2019 AHP, and while deductibles and out-of-pocket costs were a little higher on the 2020 plan, copays for office visits and prescription drugs were a little lower. Medica’s filing noted that they expected about 1,000 members to be enrolled in the plan for 2020.

    Background on alternative coverage arrangements for Nebraska farmers

    In 2019, association health plan coverage was available to farmers in Nebraska from Farm Bureau/Medica as well as Land o’ Lakes. This stemmed from new federal rules that the Trump administration issued in 2018 for association health plans, making it easier for self-employed individuals and small groups to join together and obtain health insurance regulated under the ACA’s large group rules. This was still ACA-compliant coverage, but the rules are more lenient for large groups than they are for individual and small group plans (large group plans don’t have to cover the essential health benefits, for example, and aren’t subject to the ACA’s risk adjustment program).

    In September 2018, the Nebraska Farm Bureau announced a partnership with Medica to offer an association health plan to Farm Bureau members in the state, at premiums roughly 25 percent below the premiums for ACA-compliant individual market coverage without any subsidies (people who get subsidies pay far less in premiums, but the Farm Bureau plan was marketed to people who don’t get subsidies). The coverage was robust however, and did appear to include all of the ACA’s essential health benefits. There was an open enrollment period from October 1 to December 12, 2018, during which people who were already Farm Bureau members as of July 2018 were allowed to sign up for coverage under the association health plan, and 700 Nebraska residents enrolled in Farm Bureau coverage for 2019. Enrollment was limited to existing Farm Bureau members in an effort to limit adverse selection they didn’t want lots of people with significant medical needs to join Farm Bureau solely to get health insurance and then enroll in the plan.

    Land O’Lakes also began offering an association health plan for 2019 to farmers in Nebraska who were actively engaged in business with one of 14 participating CO-OPs. The open enrollment period for Land O’Lakes association health plan coverage began October 29, 2018, and was initially slated to end December 21. But it was extended until December 31 due to high demand and a late harvest that made it challenging for farmers to enroll in coverage during the original enrollment period.

    In March 2019, a federal judge struck down the Trump Administration’s AHP rules. The new AHP rules were supposed to take effect for new self-insured AHPs as of April 1, 2019, but had already taken effect in 2018 for fully-insured AHPs. The Nebraska Farm Bureau confirmed by phone in mid-April 2019 that their fully-insured AHP coverage continued to be available, and nothing had changed for them. Gravie, which administers the Land O’Lakes AHP, also confirmed that nothing had changed about their plan availability as a result of the court ruling eligible CO-OP members who experienced a qualifying event could still enroll in the Land O’Lakes association health plan (enrollment in these plans was otherwise limited to an annual open enrollment period). But in May, the Department of Labor issued new guidance noting that while existing AHPs would be able to finish their current plan year/contract, AHPs would not be able to continue to enroll new members (the Trump administration appealed the court’s ruling).

    As a result of the uncertainty surrounding the federal rules for AHPs, Land O’Lakes is no longer offering association health plans in Nebraska for 2020 (but they have expanded to Kansas instead, where new state legislation makes the rules more flexible for AHPs). And although Medica is still partnered with Farm Bureau, they’re offering a short-term plan for 2020, instead of an AHP.

    It should be noted that the association health plan approach that was used for farmers in Nebraska in 2019, and the short-term Medica plan that’s being offered to Nebraska Farm Bureau members in 2020, are not the same thing that Farm Bureau is offering in Iowa and Tennessee.

    In Iowa and Tennessee, Farm Bureau plans are medically underwritten, so they’re only available for purchase by people who are fairly healthy. Under the Trump Administration’s rules for association health plans, the plans cannot use medical underwriting to determine eligibility or premiums, but the Iowa and Tennessee Farm Bureau plans are not association health plans. Instead, they’re similar to the pre-ACA individual market: Coverage is available year-round, anyone can join the Farm Bureau (even if they’re not involved in agriculture) and apply for coverage, but eligibility for coverage is based on the applicant’s medical history.

    In Nebraska, however, residents could only enroll in Farm Bureau or Land O’Lakes AHP coverage if they were involved in agriculture, enrollment was limited to an annual open enrollment window, and an enrollee’s health status was not taken into consideration. For 2020, Land O’Lakes is no longer offering coverage in Nebraska, and although Farm Bureau is, the specifics still differ significantly from the Iowa/Tennessee approach, in that members can only enroll during open enrollment and must be actively engaged in agriculture, but medical underwriting is not being used to determine eligibility for coverage.

    If you get premium subsidies, you might have seen a rate reduction in 2018, and even more of a rate decrease for 2019

    Because the cost of CSR has been added to silver plan premiums starting in 2018, premium subsidies are much larger than they would otherwise have been. Consider a family of four, living in North Platte (parents are 45, and the kids are 15 and 13, and we’ll keep them the same each for each year in order to compare apples to apples and avoid the inevitable premium increases that happen just because we each get older every year).

    If they earned $97,000 in 2018, they qualified for a premium subsidy of $2,130 per month. After that subsidy was applied, they could get a bronze plan for as little as $141/month (if they wanted a silver plan in 2018, it would have cost $773/month, and if they wanted a gold plan, it was $1,099/month, after the subsidy was applied).

    For 2019, Medica adjusted their pricing to result in even better bargains for people who get premium subsidies (an insurer can do this if they’re the only one offering plans in a particular area, since they know they’ll have the benchmark plan, and will thus know exactly how much all of their plans differ in price from the benchmark plan’s price). If our hypothetical family in North Platte earned $97,000 in 2019, they qualified for a premium subsidy of $2,389/month. They could select from two bronze plans that were entirely free after the subsidy was applied. Or they could get a gold plan for $303/month. There was only one silver plan available, so it was the benchmark and it would have been $778/month after the subsidy (note that this is very similar to the cost of the silver plan in 2018 the benchmark rate stays fairly constant from one year to the next, after subsidies are applied, for people with fairly consistent income).

    But in 2017, a family in that same situation would have qualified for a premium subsidy of just $1,322 per month (substantially lower than the 2018 and 2019 subsidy amounts), and the cheapest bronze plan available to them would have been $479/month in after-subsidy premiums (a silver plan would have been at least $748/month — similar to 2018 and 2019 costs, because again, premium subsidies are designed to keep the cost of silver plans fairly consistent from one year to the next — and there were simply no gold plans available in their area (69101 zip code) for 2017).

    In December 2017, Senator Ben Sasse (R, Nebraska) tweeted “Have heard from multiple farmers today about panic in their counties about health insurance premium increases for 2018.

    To be clear, premiums for people who don’t qualify for premium subsidies are substantial. If the family in North Platte earned more than $98,400 in 2018, their least-expensive option was a bronze plan that cost $2,282/month in premiums. [Keep in mind that the $98,400 amount was after any contributions to employer-sponsored or self-employment retirement plans, and after any contributions to an HSA. The least-expensive bronze plan was HSA qualified and would have allowed this family to set aside up to $6,900 in an HSA in 2018, lowering their adjusted gross income by that amount.] For 2019, if that family earned more than $100,400 (again, after deductions that will lower their ACA-specific MAGI), their lowest-cost option was $2,314/month.

    But there are a few points that need to be made about Sasse’s tweet:

    • The median income for farm families in the US was under $78,000 in 2017 (the income comes from their non-farm sources, since median net farm-related income is slightly negative).
    • An income of $78,000 will result in premium subsidies for families with three or more members. As noted above, the subsidies became much more substantial starting in 2018. If our family in North Platte was earning $78,000 in 2018, their premium subsidy would have been $2,282 per month, and they could have obtained a bronze plan for free after the subsidy was applied. With a $78,000 income for 2019, they would qualify for a subsidy of $2,545/month and would have access to three free bronze plans and a gold plan that costs just $145/month for the whole family.
    • If the family is eligible for employer-sponsored coverage due to one or both spouses having another job in addition to the farm, they can use that coverage instead of buying individual market coverage. But they may be in a situation where it’s only affordable for the employee, and not for the whole family. That’s known as the family glitch. Former Minnesota Senator Al Franken introduced legislation in 2014 to fix the family glitch, but it did not have enough support to pass.
    • HHS noted in 2016 that premiums are about 7 percent lower, on average, in states that have expanded Medicaid versus states that have not. Nebraska has not expanded Medicaid, although the state is moving forward with a plan to expand coverage by the fall of 2020, after Nebraska voters approved a Medicaid expansion ballot initiative in the 2018 election. But since Medicaid has not yet been expanded in the state, hospitals face more uncompensated care costs in Nebraska than they would if Medicaid had already been expanded. The multi-year delay in expanding Medicaid in Nebraska also means that the private plans in the exchange are covering people with incomes as low as the poverty level. If the state had expanded Medicaid, the private plans in the exchange would be covering people with incomes of 139 percent of the poverty level and above, since people with income below that level would be eligible for Medicaid instead. Lower incomes correlate with poorer health, so the overall risk pool for private plans in Nebraska would be expected to be healthier (and thus, lower-cost) if Medicaid were expanded. Sasse is a federal lawmaker, so the decision to not expand Medicaid was not his (that rests with governors and state lawmakers). But Sasse has been openly critical of the coverage gains made in other states as a result of Medicaid expansion, perhaps not understanding that it’s a key component of keeping private plan premiums in check?
    • As noted above, the average premium increase in Nebraska was slated to be 16.9 percent for 2018, and that would have been the case if federal lawmakers — including Sasse — had allocated CSR funding. But they didn’t, and the result was an average rate increase of 31 percent in Nebraska. Granted, that’s also what has resulted in such oversize premium subsidies in 2018 and 2019, and unsubsidized consumers can avoid the CSR load on premiums by selecting a non-silver plan. But it’s somewhat ironic that the primary factor that drove rate increases for 2018 is something that federal lawmakers could have addressed at any time during early-mid 2017. The rate increases that resulted from the lack of CSR funding were not a surprise — insurers made it very clear in their rate filings that the impact on rates would be substantial if CSR funding were not allocated, but Republican lawmakers preferred to spend much of 2017 focusing on ACA repeal efforts, rather than taking action to stabilize the individual health insurance market.

    Nebraska resisted re-enrollment, but it proceeded as planned

    For 2015 and 2016, did not have a means of automatically selecting a new plan for enrollees if their health insurer was exiting the exchange altogether. In those instances, enrollees had to either select a new plan themselves during open enrollment, or become uninsured as of January 1.

    But in the 2017 Benefit and Payment Parameters, HHS laid out a protocol for automatic re-enrollment that could be used in circumstances where the enrollee’s insurer stops offering coverage in the exchange. According to Inside Health Policy (trial subscription required), Nebraska is one of at least two states that pushed back against HHS on this issue. Nebraska’s Department of Insurance noted that enrolling people in plans from alternate carriers amounts to selling health insurance without a license, and that state officials will not enroll people in the new plans selected by

    Nebraska Department of Insurance administrator for health policy, Martin Swanson, said that the state “reserve[s] the right to investigate any future placement of business by unlicensed entities.” (in this case, “unlicensed entities” refers to the federal government).

    BCBSN and UnitedHealthcare’s exit from the Nebraska exchange at the end of 2016 was exactly the sort of scenario where this applies. Under the new HHS protocol for re-enrollment, exchange enrollees who had BCBSN or UnitedHealthcare in 2016 — and who did not return to the exchange by December 15, 2016 to select a new plan for 2017 — were auto-enrolled in a new plan, with priority placed on a plan selection at the same metal level and the same product network type (PPO, HMO, POS, EPO). But if those were not available, there’s a hierarchy that would be used to select what amounts to the most similar plan available.

    BCBSN and UnitedHealthcare enrollees were advised to seek out their own replacement coverage during open enrollment. For plan selections made between November 1 and December 15, the new plan took effect January 1, with no gap in coverage. For BCBSN and United enrollees who didn’t return to the exchange to pick a new plan,’s protocol was to select a plan on their behalf. And despite the state’s push-back on this issue, automatic re-enrollment was the default for Nebraska exchange enrollees whose plans ended and who didn’t return to the exchange to pick their own plans.

    Grandmothered plans

    Nebraska’s Department of Insurance allowed pre-2014 plans to be extended in 2014. Following the Obama Administration’s announcement in March that pre-2014 plans could be extended for up to two more years, the Nebraska Department of Insurance decided in late April to allow pre-2014 health insurance plans to be extended out as far as October 2016.

    HHS issued additional extensions in early 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021, allowing these “grandmothered” plans to continue to renew until as late as October 1, 2022, provided they terminate no later than December 31, 2022 (plans must become ACA-compliant by January 1, 2023, under the terms of the most recent federal guidance). Nebraska agreed to allow carriers in the state to go along with that extension as well it is up to each carrier to decide whether to accept this option.

    Exchange history in Nebraska

    Despite work completed by the Nebraska Department of Insurance (DOI), then-Gov. Dave Heineman announced in November 2012 that the state would not operate a health insurance exchange. In rejecting a state-run exchange, Heineman said it would be much more expensive for the state to run its own exchange. He also expressed doubt that even a state-run exchange would give Nebraska much authority over exchange operations.

    Before Heineman’s final decision, he had expressed some support for a state-run exchange, and the DOI had studied that option. The DOI gathered input from stakeholders, developed a set of working assumptions around policy and operations, and issued a number of requests for information and requests for proposals to engage subcontractors in developing an exchange.

    While the federal government manages most functions for the new marketplace, Nebraska oversees participating health plans. The Nebraska legislature also authorized a work group, called the Nebraska Exchange Stakeholder Commission, to provide input to state and federal officials on how the marketplace should operate.

    In early December, 2014, the Nebraska Exchange Stakeholder Commission announced their recommendation that Nebraska continue to have a federally-run exchange, noting that it would be costly and difficult to switch to a state-run exchange at this point, especially given that federal funding was no longer available to establish a state-run exchange.

    Contact the exchange
    The federal government operates the exchange in Nebraska

    More Nebraska health insurance exchange links

    State Exchange Profile: Nebraska
    The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation overview of Nebraska’s progress toward creating a state health insurance exchange.

    Nebraska Department of Insurance
    Assists consumers who have purchased insurance on the individual market or who have insurance through an employer who only does business in Nebraska.
    (877) 564-7323 / Toll Free: (800) 833-7352

    Nebraska DOI’s overview of the exchange
    An in-depth document published in 2012 that detailed how the exchange would work.

    Nebraska DOI’s Listening Sessions for 2019 — a detailed analysis of the history and current state of the individual market in Nebraska, plus a look at alternatives like short-term health plans, association health plans, and health care sharing ministries, from a regulatory standpoint.

    The story of Oshkosh, Nebraska

    Pioneers of the city of Oshkosh, Wisconsin traveled west and used the namesake to found the city of Oshkosh, Nebraska in the 1880s.

    While the city of Oshkosh was incorporated in 1853, not everyone stuck around.

    At one time known as the “Sawdust Capital of the World,” for a thriving lumber industry — 47 sawmills, 15 shingle mills in 1874 — which grew following the impact of the dueling fires on the lumber industry in Chicago and Peshtigo between Oct. 8-10, 1871, Oshkosh had a population of around 12,000 in 1875.

    But not everyone wanted to stay in one of the Wisconsin Territory’s most promising cities.

    Cattlemen continued westbound on the dirty, boring path (c’mon, have you driven through Iowa) through the plains until they reached the ever-changing Nebraska Territory.

    The region held early fur trading posts, including Fort Kearny and Fort Mitchell (Scottsbluff), and for those who went northward (or played the Oregon Trail), Fort Caspar, Fort Halleck, Fort Laramie and Fort Sanders, in the future state of Wyoming.

    Nebraska’s Territory included much of the original Louisiana Purchase, according to historical accounts. It was later whittled away into what we know as the State of Nebraska.

    An 1857 map of the Territory of Nebraska commissioned by an Act of Congress by H.D. Rogers in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.

    Oshkosh, Nebraska was named after Wisconsin pioneers who traveled west from Wisconsin and founded the city in the 1880s. The first post office was set up in 1889, and a railroad (now Union Pacific Railroad) reached the city by 1908. It was designated Garden County seat in 1909, and incorporated a year later.

    Geographically, Oshkosh has a total area of .67 square miles, all if it land, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. The city has 828 people, according to a 2015 survey, which diminished by 6.3 percent in 2010.

    The city of Oshkosh’s website lists “inspiration” as the city and county’s greatest asset: “brimming with inspiration sunsets, rivers and lakes, fishing, wildlife sanctuaries that are world renowned to birding enthusiasts.”

    For more information on the history of Oshkosh, Nebraska, read Helen M. Robinson’s: “Recollections.”

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