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7 December 1942
Royal Marine Commandos begin their famous penetration of the Gironde River (the Cockleshell Heroes).
Heavy fighting at Buna
Pearl Harbor bombed
At 7:55 a.m. Hawaii time, a Japanese dive bomber bearing the red symbol of the Rising Sun of Japan on its wings appears out of the clouds above the island of Oahu. A swarm of 360 Japanese warplanes followed, descending on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in a ferocious assault. The surprise attack struck a critical blow against the U.S. Pacific fleet and drew the United States irrevocably into World War II.
With diplomatic negotiations with Japan breaking down, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his advisers knew that an imminent Japanese attack was probable, but nothing had been done to increase security at the important naval base at Pearl Harbor. It was Sunday morning, and many military personnel had been given passes to attend religious services off base. At 7:02 a.m., two radar operators spotted large groups of aircraft in flight toward the island from the north, but, with a flight of B-17s expected from the United States at the time, they were told to sound no alarm. Thus, the Japanese air assault came as a devastating surprise to the naval base.
Much of the Pacific fleet was rendered useless: Five of eight battleships, three destroyers, and seven other ships were sunk or severely damaged, and more than 200 aircraft were destroyed. A total of 2,400 Americans were killed and 1,200 were wounded, many while valiantly attempting to repulse the attack. Japan’s losses were some 30 planes, five midget submarines, and fewer than 100 men. Fortunately for the United States, all three Pacific fleet carriers were out at sea on training maneuvers. These giant aircraft carriers would have their revenge against Japan six months later at the Battle of Midway, reversing the tide against the previously invincible Japanese navy in a spectacular victory.
The day after Pearl Harbor was bombed, President Roosevelt appeared before a joint session of Congress and declared, “Yesterday, December 7, 1941𠄺 date which will live in infamy–the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.” After a brief and forceful speech, he asked Congress to approve a resolution recognizing the state of war between the United States and Japan. The Senate voted for war against Japan by 82 to 0, and the House of Representatives approved the resolution by a vote of 388 to 1. The sole dissenter was Representative Jeannette Rankin of Montana, a devout pacifist who had also cast a dissenting vote against the U.S. entrance into World War I. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war against the United States, and the U.S. government responded in kind.
The American contribution to the successful Allied war effort spanned four long years and cost more than 400,000 American lives.
Birthdays in History
Birthdays 1 - 100 of 281
- Gennadi Vassilyevich Sarafanov, USSR, cosmonaut (Soyuz 15) Martin Frost, (Rep-D-TX, 1971- ) Alassane Ouattara, Former Prime Minister of Ivory Coast Hugh Shelton, 15th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff John Marsden, Australian lawyer, gay activist (d. 2006) Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah, Prime Minister of Kuwait (2011-present), born in Kuwait City, Kuwait Terenci Moix, Spanish writer, born in Barcelona, Spain (d. 2003)
Jan 8 Stephen Hawking, English physicist (Black Holes & Baby Universes), born in Oxford, England (d. 2018)
- Vyacheslav Dmitriyevich Zudov, Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz 23), born in Bor, Russia Junichiro Koizumi, Japanese politician (Prime Minister, 2001–06), born in Yokosuka, Japan Lee Kun-hee, Korean business magnate & chairman of Samsung Group, born in Uiryeong County, South Korea Aleksandr Yakovlevich Petrushenko, Russian cosmonaut Vladimir Sergeyevich Kozelsky, Russian cosmonaut (Soyuz 24 backup), born in Aleksandrovskoye Stavropol kray, Soviet Union Bernardine Dohrn, former leader of the Weather Underground, born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin Michael Mayor, Swiss astrophysicist (discovered 1st exoplanet), 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics, born in Lausanne, Switzerland Amichand Rajbansi, South African politician, born in Durban, South Africa (d. 2011) Carol Bellamy, American politician (City Council Pres-D- 1978-85), born in NYC, New York Tony P. Hall, American politician (Rep-D-OH, 1979- ), born in Dayton, Ohio James "Jimmy" Grashow, American sculptor and woodcut artist, born in Brooklyn, New York Ita Buttrose, Australian journalist & businesswoman, born in Potts Point, Australia Ivan Ivanovich Bachurin, Soviet cosmonaut, born in Kharkov Oblast, Ukrainian SSR Willy Bogner Jr., German fashion designer & film maker (On Her Majesty's Secret Service), born in Munich, Germany Jens Nygaard Knudsen, Danish Lego designer of the minifigure, born in Denmark (d. 2020) Nigel Walmsley, chairman (Carlton UK Television) William McLennan, CEO (Central Statistical Office) Tasuku Honjo, Japanese immunologist (Nobel Prize for medicine 2018), born in Kyoto, Japan Arnaldo Tamayo-Méndez, Cuban cosmonaut, first Latin-American in space (Soyuz 38, 1980), born in Baracoa, Guantánamo, Cuba F R Hartley, Vice-Chancellor (Cranfield University) Richard Needham, British MP Satya Paul, Indian fashion designer and entrepreneur who invented the modern sari, born in Layyah, Punjab, British India (d. 2021)  Susan Hill, English playwright (Magic Apple Tree) Sarah Brady, American gun-control activist, born in Kirksville, Missouri James Loewen, American sociologist & historian, born in Decatur, Illinois Ton de Kok, Dutch politician (CDA) Michael Bishop, British CEO (British Midland Airways), born in Bowdon, Cheshire Archie Andrews, comic book character (Archie) Chananjit Vohra, Kenyan/British hotel magnate/multi-millionaire Ehud Barak, Prime Minister of Israel Donald E. Williams, US naval officer & NASA astronaut (STS 51D, STS 34), born in Lafayette, Indiana (d. 2016) Margaret Wright, chief commissioner (Guide Association) Michael Bloomberg, American philanthropist, politician, and CEO of Bloomberg L.P., born in Boston, Massachusetts
Feb 16 Kim Jong-il, Supreme Leader of North Korea (1994-2011), born in Vyatskoye, Soviet Union [disputed birthplace and birth date, 1941] (d. 2011)
- Huey P. Newton, African-American activist, revolutionary and co-founder of the Black Panther Party, born in Monroe, Louisiana (d. 1989) Ken Kramer [Kenneth Bentley Kramer], former American Republican member of the House of Representatives, born in Chicago, Illinois Claude Miller, director (Garde a Vue, Little Thief, Wild Child), (d. 2012) David O'Dowd, Chief Constable (Northamptonshire)
Feb 20 Mitch McConnell, American politician, (Senator-R-KY, 1985-, and Senate Majority Leader 2015- ), born in Sheffield, Alabama
- Peter Leonard, Australian journalist and newsreader, born in Yass, New South Wales (d. 2008) Beau Boulter, (Rep-R-TX, 1985- ) John Lewis, Head Master (Eton College) Joop van den Ende, Dutch theatrical producer, born in Amsterdam, Netherlands David K Williamson, Australian screenplay/playwright (Removalists) Joe Lieberman, (Sen-D Connecticut) Stuart Henry, British disc jockey Adriaan van Dis, Dutch author (Nathan Sid, In Africa), born in Bergen aan Zee, Netherlands Charlayne Hunter-Gault, American journalist & foreign correspondent (McNeil-Lehrer), born in Due West, South Carolina Robert H. Grubbs, American chemist & Nobel Prize laureate, born in Marshall County, Kentucky Richard Bowman Myers, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff John Irving, American short-story writer (The World According to Garp The Cider House Rules), born in Exeter, New Hampshire Kwang Jo Choi, the founder of Choi Kwang- do and is one of the twelve original Masters of Taekwon-Do. Vladimir Vasilyevich Kovolyonok, USR, cosmonaut (Soyuz 25, 29/31, T-4) Charles C. Krulak, 31st Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps Michael "Mike" Resnick, American sci-fi author (Sideshow Eros Ascending), born in Chicago, Illinois Felipe González, Prime Minister of Spain, 1982-96, born in Seville Paul Preuss, American sci-fi author (Medusa Encounter, Starfire) Tommy F. Robinson, American politician (Rep-D-AR, 1985-91), born in Little Rock, Arkansas Charles R. Boutin, American politician (Maryland), born in Troy, New York
Mar 12 Ratko Mladić, Bosnian Serb general during the Bosnian War (found guilty of war crimes 2017), born in Božanovići, Croatia
- Dave Cutler, American software engineer, born in Lansing, Michigan John Whittaker, English real estate developer (Peel Holdings) James Soong, Taiwanese politician
John Wayne Gacy
Mar 17 John Wayne Gacy, American serial killer who killed 33 young men, born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1994)
- Sidney K Barthelmy, US politician(?) David Minge, (Rep-D-Minnesota) Ali Abdullah Saleh, Yemeni politician and 1st President of Yemen (1990-2012), born in Bait el-Ahmar, Kingdom of Yemen (d. 2017) Dick Pound, Canadian chairman of the World Anti-Doping Agency Walter Rodney, Guyanese historian and political figure (d. 1980) Erica Jong [Mann], American author (Fear of Flying), born in NYC, New York Raymond J. McGrath, U.S. House of Representatives from New York, born in Valley Stream, New York Sir John E. Sulston, British molecular biologist, co-recipient of 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (roundworm genome sequencing), born in Fulmer, Buckinghamshire (d. 2018) Michael Jackson, British writer and journalist, born in Wetherby, Yorkshire (d. 2007) Neil Kinnock, Leader of the British opposition (Labour Party), born in Tredegar, Wales Daniel Dennett, American philosopher, born in Boston, Massachusetts Conrad Schumann, East German border guard, born in Zschochau, Saxony, Nazi Germany (d. 1998) Larry Pressler, American politician, United States Senator from South Dakota, born in Humboldt, South Dakota George Esson, Chief Constable (Dumfries & Galloway) Michael Savage [Michael A Wiener], American talk radio host and commentator, born in The Bronx, New York Ulla Hoffmann, Swedish politician Samuel R. Delany Jr, American sci-fi author (Towers of Toron Neveryona), born in Harlem, New York Graham Bright, British politician private secretary to British PM John Major, born in Horndon-on-the-Hill, Essex, England Hiroyuki Sakai, Japanese chef who specializes in French cuisine (Iron Chef), born in Izumi, Kagoshima, Japan Kitty Kelley, American journalist and author (Unauthorized Biography of Frank Sinatra), born in Spokane, Washington Douglas Trumbull, American film director (Silent Running, Brainstorm), born in Los Angeles, California Eduard Visser, Dutch writer (Fyffes are now called Chiquita) Earl Hilliard, American politician (Rep-D-Alabama), born in Birmingham, Alabama Nick Auf der Maur, Canadian journalist and politician, born in Montreal, Quebec (d. 1998) Anatoly Nikolayevich Berezovoi, Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz T-5), born in Enem, Russia (d. 2014)
Apr 12 Jacob Zuma, South African politician, President of South Africa (2009-18), born in Nkandla, South Africa
- Ataol Behramoğlu, Turkish poet and writer, born in Çatalca, Istanbul Province, Turkey Valentin Vitaliyevich Lebedev, cosmonaut (Soyuz 13, 35, T-5)
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941, stunned virtually everyone in the United States military. Japan’s carrier-launched bombers found Pearl Harbor totally unprepared. President Franklin Roosevelt quickly addressed Congress to ask for a declaration of war as illustrated in this audio excerpt. Although he never mentioned Europe or the fact that Germany had not yet declared war on the United States, the Pearl Harbor attack allowed him to begin the larger intervention in the European war he had long wanted.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt: Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.
The United States was at peace with that nation, and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American island of Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to our secretary of state a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack.
It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.
The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian Islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. I regret to tell you that very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.
Yesterday the Japanese government also launched as attack against Malaya.
Last night Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.
Last night Japanese forces attacked Guam.
Last night Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.
Last night Japanese forces attacked Wake Island.
And this morning the Japanese attacked Midway Island.
Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday and today speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.
As commander in chief of the Army and Navy I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. But always will our whole nation remember the character of the onslaught against us. . .
Source: Courtesy of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York.
7 December 1942 - History
"Having begun her search for Reed in 1986, Nadelson and a collaborator
eventually produced a documentary about him for the BBC. In the wildly
meandering "Comrade Rockstar," first published in England 15 years ago, she
sometimes has trouble remembering what she's written a page or even a
paragraph ago, and the book is full of breathtaking errors: Senator Joseph
McCarthy did not serve on the House Committee on Un-American Activities
"General Jimmy Walker" did not found the John Birch Society and *Pearl
Harbor was not bombed on Dec. 7, 1942.*" [emphasis added--DT]
Maybe that last one, unlike the other errors, was just a typo. But it led me
to think: Can you imagine a scenario--preferably one in which the European
war begins on schedule in September 1939--in which the Pacific War does
indeed start with Japan bombing Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1942? I did a
post once about Hull presenting his three-month modus vivendi
as Rich Rostrum pointed out, delaying the crisis by three months would have
can anyone see a plausible scenario where the crisis is actually delayed by
exactly one year.
It would probably have to rely on a change in US policy and decision
making - delaying or modifying the embargo that triggered the Japanese
attack by around a year.
But I simply don't know enough about the ins and outs of US policy,
politics and decision making processes to have any idea what, exactly.
I wouldn't think its beyond the realms of possibility, though . but
stand ready to be corrected and dumped upon (and hope to learn
something in any case!)
Boss Stooges Attack Overtime Pay!
From Labor Action, Vol. 6 No. 49, 7 December 1942, pp.ف &ق.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).
Without any camouflage, the post-election attack against the forty-hour week is really a murderous assault against wages.
Workers are actually putting in many more hours than forty. In fact, they work too long and get too tired – as testified to by the 11,000 industrial casualties EVERYDAY.
What bothers the bosses and the political boosters of boss profits is that the workers are being paid time and a half for work beyond the forty hours.
All talk about a forty-eight-hour week is so much dust in the eyes – thrown by labor’s worst enemies. What they are aiming at is to take away from workers who daily risk their life and limb a few dollars – the few dollars the workers now make on time and a half.
How much are workers making anyway? With this bountiful overtime pay, are they rolling in wealth? A good question – to which there is a very factual answer!
Yes, there is a war boom. Yes, workers are being paid time and a ball over forty hours. BUT WITH ALL THAT “PROSPERITY,” 16,000,000 WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES ARE EARNING LESS THAN $16 A WEEK!
These figures are for July of 1942, issued by Secretary of Labor Perkins. And these figures mean that at the height of the war boom one-third of the working force of the country gets old-time, sweat-shop wages. That’s capitalism for you!
All right. Let’s come up the scale. Let’s see how the better-off workers are making out
The average wages in all manufacturing industries reached $37.88 a week in September. Out of this small amount must be paid the following long list of items: food, clothing, rent, entertainment, education household furnishings and furniture doctors, dentists, hospitals debts and insurance income taxes, victory taxes, war bonds rising prices and consumers’ taxes. Has something perhaps been omitted? Well, just keep the change.
Secretary of Labor Perkins obligingly breaks this figure down a bit and reveals that the average wages in the manufacture of non-durable goods are only $29.71 – not $37.88. With a wife and kids and the above list of necessities, these workers cannot be exactly rolling in wealth.
These days non-durable goods means mostly civilian production. So let’s see how the other workers, the favored war workers, are wallowing in the lap of luxury.
Elsa Maxwell – that lady columnist who knows from nothing except how to gush – recently wrote in the supposedly pro-labor New York Post the following fabulous lie about wages: “Experienced workers average from $100 to $200 a week.” Thus Elsa Maxwell, the party-throwing expert of high society.
However, Secretary Perkins has statistical responsibilities which demand some regard for the truth. She assures us that in the production of durable goods – which these days is mostly war production – the average weekly wage in September was $44.47.
Go back and look at the list of necessities that $44.47 has to cover! Of course, with $44.47 a worker can do a little better than with $29.71. He can do a lot better than with $16 – which is next to nothing at all. But he won’t have much money to hide under the mattress. If he can get by without resorting to the loan sharks, he’ll be a mighty good financial manager.
The labor-haters in Congress are paid $200 a week out of public funds. Nearly all of them have some other sources of income – honest and otherwise. They get fees of one kind and another. They get returns on investments. Where do they get off to attack labor’s overtime pittance? And what of the big industrial boys who are the powers behind the congressional throne? There’s Tom Girdler of Republic Steel pocketing in salary alone $275,000 in 1941 – and Ferguson of Newport News Shipbuilding being paid $127,000 – and Love of Burlington Mills rewarded with a $179,652 salary – and Grace of Bethlehem “earning” a salary of $537,734 – to take a few at random.
Where do these fattened leeches, sucking their profits from labor’s toil, get off attacking the workers’ bit of overtime!
Obviously the bosses and their politicians believe the worker and his family are beings of inferior flesh. They consider themselves the “Aryan” class in American society – with the workers created as their eternal slaves!
In the last week there has been an ominous lull in the war these foes of labor are waging against the forty-hour week and against the workers’ overtime pay. Doubtless preparations are being made for the next encounter.
Is organized labor also preparing for a counter-offensive? This is what it must do!
Resolution on Jim Crow Good, But Lacks Teeth
From Labor Action, Vol. 6 No. 49, 7 December 1942, p.ك.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).
Next to Roosevelt and the various government speakers, it was really the Stalinists who occupied the center of the stage at the recent CIO convention in Boston. This was not due to any definite plan of the Stalinists themselves, but to the fortunes of war and Attorney General Biddle. The spotlight was on Curran and Bridges, and to a lesser extent on the Stalinists from “white collar” unions.
Curran came into the limelight because he is the head of the National Maritime Union. Two thousand members of this union have been lost at sea since the United States entered the war. Three hundred of them were Negro seamen. It was of course altogether fitting and proper that the CIO, and all the labor movement for that matter, commemorate the sacrifice that these workers have made. None of the things that we have to say about Stalinism is directed at these men or at their comrades among the living on land and sea who have been caught up in the net of the Second Imperialist World War.
NMU Gets Plaque
A memorial plaque was presented to the NMU by Murray from the CIO. There was also a “Memorial to the CIO Members in the Merchant Marine Who Have Died in the Service of Our Nation.” In presenting the plaque to Curran, Murray made the presentation address, in which he praised the heroism of the men who man the ships carrying war supplies all over the earth. “They are the boys,” said Murray, “who give of their lives, of their blood and of their limb to help America and its allies win this war.”
While it is true that these “boys” have given their lives, there was nothing said in the resolution or in Murray’s speech to indicate that there is doubt in anybody’s mind that this war may not be exactly the kind of war it is claimed to be. While plenty was said on the convention, even by such a war supporter as Senator Pepper, to create some doubt even in the mind of the most obtuse or enthusiastic, the, resolution and Murray’s speech were completely silent on the question of whether or not this is really a war for democracy.
Pepper seemed to be a little disturbed. In commenting on the statement of Churchill that he had not become Prime Minister to sit in at the funeral of the British Empire, he said: “. If we are not sincere when we say that we fight for democracy, we prepare to betray another generation.” Was the generation that fought and died in the First World War betrayed? If so, what guarantee have the men who fight in this one that their generation is not being betrayed? The workers of the world must answer this question for THEMSELVES.
In the course of Murray’s presentation speech, giving the plaque to Curran, he made the statement “This is what I personally think of you, this is what the CIO thinks of you and your union.” This was of sort of queer remark and of course does not mean that Murray has changed his mind about “communism.” It is, rather, that in their journey around the circle, the Stalinists have met Murray in all-out support of the imperialist war and have found themselves in his embrace. Perhaps it was not accidental, however, that the above quoted statement by Murray to Curran did not find its way into the printed proceedings of the convention.
Bridges Gets Spotlight
Harry Bridges also found himself in the spotlight at the convention. He was the subject of glowing praise and sanctimonious approval by Murray and the other big shots, including David MacDonald. Was this praise being bestowed on Bridges because he was AT ONE TIME a militant labor leader who led a couple of militant mass strikes? Nothing of the sort. The CIO leadership was demanding that the deportation warrant against Bridges be lifted, and he be made a citizen because, AND ONLY BECAUSE, he supports the war. His labor record was not mentioned, nor was it even hinted that his deportation may have been decreed because of his PAST militant activity.
“it has not been demonstrated to the satisfaction of labor and many citizens that Harry Bridges has ever been affiliated with or a member of any subversive organization or groups that have for their purpose the overthrow of the government of the United States. Harry Bridges has given loyal support to the government of the United States in support of this war. Australia would welcome Harry Bridges back. They believe that he would be an aid to them in winning the war.”
What did Murray think of Bridges two years ago? What would be his attitude on Bridges if he had supported a resolution in his international against the Roosevelt-Murray “no-strike” agreement that was forced on the CIO? What does Murray think would be the attitude of Australia toward Bridges if he should once again become a militant labor leader during or after the war?
MacDonald said that the way he looked at it is that “Mr. Bridges is even now a good, decent American citizen.” Bittner felt that “the Bridges case is an indictment against the government of the United States.” Of course Bittner did not tell the convention just what the indictment was. This was true of all of them. They are for Bridges now because AND ONLY BECAUSE, he is a supporter of the imperialist war.
They have a hunch, of course, that all is not exactly straight with the Bridges deportation proceedings. They know that the case arose in the days when the Stalinists were not supporting the United Nations in the war. They know also that the bosses feared that Bridges might call another strike, and for this reason wanted to get him out of the country. But they don’t mention this. It might interfere with the “war effort.” They are not concerned now with whether or not Bridges is a Stalinist. They will hold this in reserve until after the war is over.
Discussion on Race Discrimination
One of the most interesting discussions in the convention was on the question of the Negro and the CIO. There was a resolution on “discrimination” which said in part that “we of the democracies are fighting fascism at home and abroad by welding all races, all religions and all peoples into a united body of warriors for democracy. Any discriminatory practices within our ranks, against Negroes or other groups, directly aids the enemy by creating division, dissension and confusion.” The resolution resolves that “the CIO now reiterates its firm opposition to any form of racial or religious discrimination and renews its pledge to carry on the fight for protection in law and in fact of the rights of every racial and religious group to participate fully in our social, political and industrial life.”
There was objection to this resolution. The claim was made, notably by some of the Negro delegates, that it was not strong enough. Yancy, of the Transport Service Employees, said that
“we agree that reiteration is necessary, but at the same time we think we ought to get away from platitudes and take out of the framework of words this reiteration of our policies and put it into real and practical action . We believe this resolution should be recommitted and that it should be strengthened by additional facts, such as are brought forth in the Executive Board’s resolution as submitted and accepted.”
The resolution was discussed by Murray, Brophy, Bittner and many delegates from the floor. Townsend, president of the Transport Service Employees and member of the CIO Executive Council, told the convention that
“it is incumbent upon each and every one of you to recognize how serious this problem is . We are going to neglect the use of this manpower (Negro) and if you yourselves think more of your prejudices than you do of your freedom you will lose that freedom . I warn you that unless those of you who make up the Congress of Industrial Organizations don’t do more than give lip service to this burning question then something will happen that will cause all of us to regret.”
Walter Reuther spoke on the resolution to the effect that the resolution and the facts given in Murray’s remarks should get down to the people in the factories, for
“unless they understand the things we talk about in these resolution, they will remain high-sounding, pious resolutions . I think it is the duty of every delegate here today to go back to their respective organizations and see that they take up the fight against racial discrimination, not as a secondary consideration . but this fight against racial discrimination must be put on top of the list with union security and other union demands.”
It was clear that this problem of discrimination against the Negro in the unions and in the factories was beginning to worry the leadership along with their worries over Congress, the WLB and other government agencies. Discrimination against the Negro was beginning to interfere with the prosecution of the war. Their attitude is that if Negro support is to be won for the war, then discrimination must be eliminated or at least lessened.
This is the chief motivation today behind their concern over race discrimination: the solidarity of labor, black and white, is necessary to win the war. On the more important matter of the necessity for the solidarity of labor to win greater security, concessions from the bosses and a better life for the American workers as a whole, these leaders were strangely silent.
European Theater (December 7, 1942)
After Japan backs down from its attack on America this gives Germany time to prepare for the eventual intervention of America. In January/February the Germans make big plans for future military operations in Europe as fighting has stalled because of the harsh Russian winter. They first make their plans for their new summer offensive in the Soviet Union, Case Blue.
Following this, a decision is made about the Jewish population and other undesirables: full scale extermination.
As Spring comes the Soviets launch a offensive into the staging area for the 6th Army, but it eventually fails and the Germans begin their summer offensive which had the main goal of taking the oil fields of the Caucasus region. As the Germans continued to advance toward Stalingrad, the Russians geared up for a tough battle. By mid-November the Soviets were surrounded in Stalingrad and a vicious battle of street to street fighting began. The Soviets began to start two offensives, the encirclement of German troops at Stalingrad in Operation Uranus and one near Moscow, Operation Mars. The offensives were unhelpful and when the Soviets waited too long then German reinforcements arrived from Moscow and a relief attempt, Operation Winter Storm successfully broke into the Stalingrad pocket, and the city fell by late December. In the UK, American aid is being heavily supplied while the Americans can get little to the Soviets due to the German ships and Aircraft in Norway. In Washington, FDR now needs to find a way to get into the war and it comes on December 7 with the Japanese attack, but FDR knows that it will take months for full mobilization of the army, navy and air force..
After Stalingrad falls, Allied morale is bad and within a few weeks into the new year, Leningrad falls to German forces with Operation Northern Lights and the Soviets begin to evacuate the Caucasus region and prepare for a massive counter-offensive to save Moscow and the whole of Russia. After winter ends the Soviets begin a massive offensive in early Spring but with much of the German army at the front-line the offensive fails and the Germans begin their summer offensive, Operation Light Blue.The offensive does little and a stalemate ensues from Leningrad to the Caspian Sea. Meanwhile in the west, after a quiet 1942, 1943 becomes a living hell. A second Battle of Britain ensues and much of the same tactics are used except there are far more Luftwaffe planes, withdrawn from the Eastern Front and including several Heinkel HE 280 Jet Fighters and much of the UK is surrounded by U-boats and battleships, cruisers and destroyers. The Royal Family is evacuated to Canada and some of the British Parliament consider making peace, most notably Halifax and his supporters. Churchill convinces them to keep fighting but resentment to the war rises. By September, the British have only a few airfields left as the Germans have so many planes attacking the small RAF (Royal Air Force) cannot bear the burden of the attack. On October 10, Britain's last airfield is destroyed and the Germans do not find out for three days. After an air reconnaissance flight air superiority is claimed and Hitler gives the go-head for "Operation Sealion" the invasion of Britain. The Germans begin preparation for the invasion and expect it to be able to take place by March 17 of next year. One problem arises though the Americans are supposedly finally mobilized and will try to send more aid and actual troops and planes to fight off the expected invasion.
As a new year comes by the Germans now have a two-front war now the Americans are mobilised and ready to fight. On February 10, the Nazis begin deporting Jews and the "Final Solution" but the Allies still don't really no what will happen to the Jews as their spies haven't been able to get close enough to the documents concerning the Jewish deportation. The Allies though have other things to worry about the expected invasion is not far off and final preparations must be made before it is to late. All the British know is that it is around spring and they suspect most likely in March but they don't know specifics. On March 12 the Germans test a new form of Fuel Air Explosive Bomb to see if it works. The test is on Moscow, carried by a prototype ME 264 Amerika Bomber and it works as the Kremlin burns. They now plan to use it on London and British troops/equipment. Meanwhile in Russia, the bomb kills many and Stalin decides to hold a meeting about what kind of course of action should be taken from this point on and he supplies a few choices: Keep fighting to the last man, surrender now, or try a massive counter-offensive and if it fails surrender. Five days after the FAE attack on Moscow, Germany invades the British Isles. The force consists of many elements: about 10,000 Waffen-SS troops from the Leibstandarte and Das Reich Divisions along with the 17th Infantry division and 6th Mountain division, about 7,000 paratroops from the first and second Fallschirmjager Divisions, and the navy shelling all the beaches being invaded, Luftwaffe planes dropping bombs and FAEs on London and British defenses, back-up fighter planes that will fight what is left of the Royal Air Force and they will also bomb random parts of southern-England, and tanks that will be carried behind British lines by ME 321 Gigant Gliders along with about 3,500 specialist Waffen-SS paratroops that will attack the British lines. At around 7:30am the British are defeated in their counterattacks at the first beachhead around Folkstone & Dover and what's left retreats to London. By noon on the same day, half of the beachheads have been secured as much of the British army retreats to London and other towns and cities. Attacks by FAEs damage much of London and the city is lit-a-blaze. By night time, the British are in full retreat as the first stage of the invasion is clearly a success for Germany. By late March, London is like Stalingrad and much of southwestern-England has been conquered and the Americans decide to begin talks with Eire to allow them to be a base for American troops and if Britain loses a base for refugees, citizens and soldiers alike, and a base for British resistance and airfields for the Royal Air Force. After two weeks get a response from Erie, a yes.
This a big political victory as now a decision must be made about what to do about the situation in London and the rest of Great Britain as the Germans are advancing rapidly. By the first week of April the government has fled to Canada. Churchill holds a meeting with the American and British commanders. Churchill says that since the Americans will have planes and troops fighting by the last week of April, he promises to keep fighting until then when if the tide doesn't change fast it may lead to a repeat of WW1 and gas may even be used for defensive purposes.
On the Eastern Front the Soviets begin their offensive and see improvements as more troops have been devoted by the Soviets to this attack, along with new Tanks like the T34-85, the Stalin II and the ISU 152, and the Germans are heavily occupied with the west. progress is made as Leningrad is Besieged, this time by the Soviets, and Moscow is freed from long Range Artillery Fire Germans are pushed back. When the Germans realize what is happening they decide to use FAE bombs tactically on Russian forces and an influx of troops come from occupied areas like Poland and Denmark to hold down the Russians. On April 25, the Russians are pushed back to almost pre-offensive lines and heavy bombing attacks begin to fall all across the front-line. By May 2, the Soviets have reportedly lost nearly one million soldiers/civilians since the bombing runs have been in effect. Stalin decides that at this rate he will never stop the Nazis and on May 7, the Soviets surrender to the Nazis and the war in the east is officially over.
By this time in England, the Germans have surrounded London and the Germans are beginning to invade Wales and Scotland. As for the American troops, they have arrived and are slowly filing into London but are used as replacements for British Troops. The American air force is quickly blooded, but suffers heavily at the hands of new German ME 262 Jets but it has slowed the invasion force. The news of Soviet surrender shocks the Allies as now the whole of Germany's Might will be set upon America and Britain. For the rest of the month, both sides hold inside meetings about what their next moves will be and the Germans will also work out the peace treaty with the Soviets. The new border between the two nations will be at the Ural Mountains to the Ural River to the Caspian Sea. The Soviets are angered but must accept or face even worse consequences. The Soviet Army will also be restricted to just 150,000 men and will be inspected every five years for the amount of soldiers so that they are not breaking the treaty. The Treaty of Smolensk is signed on May 25 and by this time, Churchill has decided to hold an emergency meeting concerning the war. They meet on June 1 and discuss the options they currently have. Since London is surrounded and troops on both sides are being slaughtered, they decide to evacuate the populace underground and have them put on their gas masks as the Army will release Mustard and Chlorine gas on the city, troops will also hide in buildings with full clothing and gas masks and while the Germans suffer in pain they will flee the city. As for the rest of the island, it has been decided to stand and fight until the last man. On June 12, the British release the gas and the soldiers and civilians flee the city as the Germans are slowly killed. The Germans are unable to stop the evacuation as they must flee to survive. After the gas clears, the Germans have nearly 5,000 dead from the gas while the British only have the unlucky few dead, which there were not many. For the rest of the month the land and sea are quiet but the skies are filled with blood as there are dogfights every night.
The battles in the skies are just a decoy as Hitler has planned retaliation for the attack. The plan is to release massive amounts of Sarin and Tabun gas on Glasgow and Cardiff and some on Allied troops near the cities. On July 4 the attack takes place and the Germans also begin to march into Wales and the areas near Glasgow. As the month goes by, thousands die of the gas on both sides as it spreads throughout the island nation except in the southern and northeastern parts of the country. In August the Germans secure the area around Glasgow and Cardiff. By September 11, the Germans have secured the city of Cardiff and the local government in Wales surrenders the territory of Wales. On September 28 the United States and Britain release more gases on German forces and they build massive trenches around the city of Glasgow as they prepare for a massive battle that will decide the fate of the island nation and the rest of the world. In October the Germans launch a massive campaign and also drop some gas and firebombs on the city of Glasgow and decide to have some forces take the rest of Scotland while the city is under siege. The Germans are able to take up all of western Scotland and begin to take the rest of the north but are met with fierce resistance at Edinburgh which is in north-central Scotland as much of what is left of the British force not in Glasgow is there ready to fight. As a battle ensues the British government begs America and Canada to supply more troops to help the war effort. They both immediately send both nearly 10,000 troops to liberate the island. They arrive by November 12 but by then the situation is critical. In Glasgow, if they don't find a way to beat the Germans soon then surrender will be inevitable and in Edinburgh it is expected that the Nazis will conquer the city in a day or two. On November 16 Einstein tells American officials that he may be able to build an atom bomb by spring 1945 but it won't be operational until late summer of 1945. The Americans can't make time go faster so they work with what they have. As for the Germans they are far from building a nuke but they are fibbing that they will have one soon. On Thanksgiving Day the city of Glasgow falls as the Germans are able to surround British, American, and Canadian forces. The Allies will have to surrender Britain if Edinburgh falls and hopefully though will be able to get Erie into the war. A few days after Glasgow falls, the city of Edinburgh falls and the Allies flee the island at the city of Wick in an area where no Germans are near by but they leave behind a select few to try to stop the Germans and give the Allies some time to prepare for the oncoming defeat. On December 11 the Allies gain a new ally, Eire. The nation becomes a base and the European Theater is no more and it becomes the Atlantic Theater.
Atlantic Theater (December 7, 1942)
Note: This is a continuation of the European Theater. The main reason of the continuation is because of the fact that Europe is now no longer a battlefield.
After the British, American, and Canadian forces leave Britain for Germany to take they then flee to Erie where airfield are filled with planes, docks filled with warships, and towns filled with Allied soldiers and surprisingly the Irish are happy that they are in the war, now that they have some protection and have some Allies close to home. The Germans immediately annihilate the force that was left behind as the Germans conquer the island and prepare for the expected invasion of Erie. On February 13 the Nazis begin bombing Ireland everywhere as the precursor to the invasion. Ireland is burned to bits and they feel that they have been betrayed by the Allies as their country is being destroyed and when the ambassador talks to Churchill at a meeting between the two he says,"Why have you let us suffer?". Churchill simply replied, "It is not our fault. It is the war that has done this to you." After the meeting it becomes clear that Erie is not a good ally but it will not be abandoned. By St. Patrick's Day, the anniversary of the invasion of Britain, the Allies are in a grave situation as the Nazis are clearly preparing to invade the last Allied stronghold near Britain but the Allies make a grave mistake as they have forgotten about Iceland and Greenland. The Germans decide to invade Iceland and then attack Erie from all sides. On April 1 the Nazis launch a massive invasion of Iceland and within a few days of the attack the Allies flee the island as now the Nazis have supply lines cut off. The Allies now decide to lighten the force in Erie and begin evacuating the populace as an invasion is clearly on its way. After weeks of little combat, on May 2 the Axis invade Erie and quickly take the cities of Belfast and Dublin within hours of the first landings. By May 10, the Germans have taken all of the northern part of the island and have begun landings along the western and southern parts of the island. On May 25, the Germans capture the last of the "Emerald Isle" and the Germans immediately send troops to Iceland to prepare for their next targets,America. As the months go by, the Allies and Axis on both sides are preparing for the big fight and meanwhile Churchill, though in America, is supplying a resistance in Britain and by December a terrorist attack on the Nazis will happen in London. On September 10, the American, British, and Canadian naval fleets engage German U-boats near Newfoundland and this leads to increased fear in Allied nations as the war is getting closer to home. On December 31, when German troops are celebrating the new year in London, a terrorist attack occurs that obliterates much of the army's headquarters and after this, the Brits will never be treated the same again. Meanwhile FDR dies of a brain hemorrhage and Truman is immediately sworn in as President of the United States.
When the year comes along the world prepares for another year of terrible combat. In Britain, the people are treated like trash even worse than people in other occupied nations but still not worse than the Jews(Since they are being killed in the Holocaust). In the United States, President Roosevelt is becoming more wary of fighting the war and holds a meeting with all of his cabinet members and Winston Churchill. A vote is made and narrowly the men in the room decide to keep fighting but it is ultimately under FDR's control. He decides to stay and fight and prepare for the worst. As for the nuclear program in America it has been stalled because of the attacks in Ireland and Britain and has now been resumed and should be complete by July. On May 5, the United States and Germany have their navies engage in a fierce that goes undecided when both sides have massive losses. The battle takes place near the island of Bermuda. In Germany, Hitler receives news that his nuclear program will be complete in August 1946. He decides he must begin an invasion of America so that he can end the war with a massive victory. His first decision is to invade Bermuda and make it a massive air, sea, and land base so the invasion of America can take place. Truman though notices that there is increased movement near Bermuda and he has troops, planes, and battleships to defend the island at all costs because he knows what will happen if Germany takes the island. Over the next five months the Germans prepare for a massive attack on Bermuda which will be a prelude to the invasion of America. On October 11 the Germans launch their invasion of Bermuda and are met with fierce resistance. The battle lasts for almost thirteen-weeks and both sides have casualties near the fifty-thousand mark. In the end the Germans are able to capture the island and the Allies prepare for their bloodiest battle yet. Again because of an invasion, the atom-bomb was held back on both sides but America completes in November and tests it in the Nevada desert as the Germans fall behind but Germany has had secret weapons hidden V-1 and V-2 rockets along with jet fighters that were ahead of their time. The Americans don't know about this but they are just about prepared for anything. As the last weeks of the year wind down, both sides prepare for another long battle but this one will truly decide the fate of the world.
In the United States the public are scared and many flee to the heart of the country to prepare for the oncoming invasion. As for the government, it flees to St. Louis and sets up temporary headquarters there as they also are planning ahead. In Germany the army, navy, and air force are finishing preparations for the invasion of America also known as "Operation: Black Cross". Aircraft carriers come into the German navy for the first time and planes are quickly loaded as the Germans want the attack to start as soon as possible and get it over with quickly. In America, anti-aircraft guns are placed everywhere from Key West, Florida to Portland, Maine. The navy has ships all along the coast and planes at the ready no matter what our. The National Guard in each state is at the ready and the National Army, Air Force, and Navy are constantly ready for the invasion. America may be ready but can it withstand the might of the fist of Nazi Germany. As for America's A-Bomb it is finally complete and they are ready to use it at any moment. Then the invasion begins: At 6:00am on March 30, German bombers and planes begin bombarding American defenses and attacking American airfields and bombing American cities such as Washington, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Charlotte, Charleston, Atlanta, and Miami. Fifteen-minutes later German ships engage with American ships. Five minutes later the Americans are able to respond and dogfights irrupt in the skies. At 6:45am, German paratroopers land in Washington, Richmond, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Miami, Atlanta, Savannah, Charlotte, Charleston, Jacksonville, and Hartford. All paradrops are a success and as now the set-up for the actual invasion is ready. At around 7:39am the Germans have their transports offload nearly three million troops across the East Coast as the Americans are caught off guard fighting the already attacking Germans. About six hours later at 1:45pm much of the invaded areas of America have seen American troops retreating with high casualties that only grow by the minute. The day goes by exactly as the Americans retreat from a horrible defeat as the Nazi forces overrun much of the East Coast. Within the next three weeks everything east of the Appalachian Mountains are overrun. The Americans decide the A-Bomb must be used now. A group of volunteers who are willing to die will distract German troops in Atlanta where the heart of the southern part of the invasion is based. On April 29 the attack commences and a few hours after the attack an American Bomber carrying the A-Bomb drops it in the heart of Atlanta but the Germans were tipped by a saboteur and the attack only kills civilians that were left for dead. Five weeks after the A-Bomb failure the Germans are at the Mississippi River in Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois which causes the American government to flee to Denver, Colorado. The Americans give up at this point but the will of the soldiers don't want to surrender so more bloodshed occurs until on June 22 when America finally surrenders and the war comes to an end. A peace deal is made and signed by July 4 and the terms are as follows:
- The American government along with the Canadian government will pay massive reparations to the German regime until all damages are paid for which at the rate the Germans want, it will still take until 2115 until all payments will be made.
- Germany will keep all conquered lands (except in the United States) and America will remain out of European affairs unless asked to be involved by Germany.
- America's army, navy, and air force will be limited to a certain amount.
- And lastly Churchill must be handed over.
The Allies find these harsh terms and instead secretly help Churchill flee to Mexico where he will be semi-safe. They report that he has fled to Japan. The Germans are not trustworthy of the report and give up on the search for Winston Churchill within two weeks. Over the next few months the Americans try to rebuild and the Germans kill off their "enemies" as the world moves on to a three-way Cold War.
Defense Continues to the End on Corregidor
Staff of Finance Office and Signal Corps, U.S. Army, Manila, shared Lateral Number 12 of Melinta Tunnel during the siege of Corregidor, Phillipine Islands, March/April 1942.
With Bataan completely in their hands, the Japanese turned their attention to Corregidor. The Corregidor Island defenders were in relatively better shape than the Bataan units, but by April were also showing the effects of prolonged siege. Continuous bombardment by artillery from Bataan as well as naval and air bombing went on through April. Although fortifications, underground tunnel facilities, and some gun emplacements withstood the bombardments, all installations in the open were destroyed. Ultimately, what Japanese shells didn't do was done by deliberate destruction to prevent the facilities from falling into Japanese hands. As the end clearly approached, code books and records were burned and small arms smashed.
The Japanese began their final assault on Corregidor with a heavy artillery barrage on 1 May. On the night of 5-6 May, two battalions of infantry landed on the northeast end of the island. Despite strong resistance, they established a beachhead that was soon reinforced by tanks and artillery. Army and Navy support personnel fighting as infantry joined a Marine regiment to meet the invasion, but the defenders were quickly pushed back to the Malinta Hill stronghold where their position became untenable.
President Roosevelt had personally authorized General Wainwright to decide on the circumstances of surrender. The last message from Wainwright on Corregidor was received late on 6 May:
". with broken heart and with head bowed in sadness, but not in shame, I report. that today I must arrange terms for the surrender of the fortified islands of Manila Bay, Corregidor, Fort Hughes, Fort Drum, and. " (end of message)
Although it ended in defeat, the successful execution of MacArthur's Bataan plan saved the 75,000 troops on Luzon from immediate defeat, delayed the Japanese timetable for conquest by four months, and kept large Japanese combat forces tied up in the Philippines long after Malaya, Singapore, and the Indies had fallen.
The fate of the Americans and Filipinos who became POWs was a shameful chapter in the history of war, the Bataan Death March.