9 September 1940

9 September 1940

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9 September 1940

North Africa

Start of very limited Italian offensive into Egypt. Italian troops reach Sidi Barrani and then halt.


First prototype Mustang rolled out, although without the engine.

War at Sea

The first of the 50 American destroyers join the Royal Navy

Today in World War II History—September 9, 1939 & 1944

80 Years Ago—September 9, 1939: Battle of Bzura (Kutno): Polish Army makes sole offensive of war, forcing Germans to withdraw from Warsaw.

First troops of British Expeditionary Force sail in convoy to France.

Surprise sneak preview of Gone with the Wind is held at the Fox Theater in Riverside, CA producer David O. Selznick gauges the audience reaction.

Coldstream Guards, British Expeditionary Force landing at Cherbourg, France, Sept.-Oct. 1939. (Imperial War Museum)

75 Years Ago—Sept. 9, 1944: Canadians overrun German rocket bases on the Belgian coast.

US First Army enters the Netherlands near Maastricht.

Near Brest, France, four men of the US 2 nd Ranger Battalion, led by Lt. Robert Edlin, with lots of bluffing and bravado, take Batterie Graf Spee at Locrist without firing a shot—and take 814 POWs.

Today in History: Born on September 9

Duc Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, French cardinal and statesman who helped build France into a world power under the leadership of King Louis XIII.

Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist (War and Peace, Anna Karenina).

Alfred M. Landon, Republican governor of Kansas who carried only two states in his overwhelming defeat for the presidency by Franklin Roosevelt in 1936.

Colonel Harland Sanders, originator of Kentucky Fried Chicken fast-food restaurants.

James Hilton, British novelist who authored Lost Horizon and Goodbye Mr. Chips and created the imaginary world of "Shangri-La."

Joseph E. Levine, film producer, founder of Embassy Pictures Corporation, an independent studio and distributor of films such as Godzilla, King of the Monsters!, The Graduate, A Bridge Too Far, and The Lion in Winter.

Shigekazu Shimazaki, Japanese commander and pilot who led the second wave of the air attack on Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941 posthumously promoted to admiral in 1945.

Bernard Bailyn, historian, author received Pulitzer Prize for History (1968, 1987), and National Humanities Medal (2010).

Hoyt Curtin, composer and music producer primary musical director for Hanna-Barbera animation studio (The Flintstones, Top Cat, The Smurfs).

Otis Redding, singer, songwriter, record producer, known as the "King of Soul" "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay," "Respect."

Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Indonesian general, 6th president of Indonesia.

Joe Theismann, American football player, sports announcer member of College Football Hall of Fame winning quarterback, Super Bowl XVII.

Hugh Grant, actor, film producer awards include Golden Globe (Four Weddings and a Funeral) and London Critics Circle's British Actor of the Year (About a Boy)

Adam Sandler, actor, comedian, screenwriter, film producer (Saturday Night Live, Happy Gilmore).

Michael Buble, multiple Grammy and Juno award–winning singer, songwriter, actor (Crazy Love, It's Time).

Michelle Williams, Golden Globe–winning actress (My Week with Marilyn).

Jo Woodcock, actress (The Picture of Dorian Gray, Torn TV miniseries).

The Myth of the Blitz

Bombed houses © The account of the Blitz - as Britain's major cities experienced a sustained and unrelenting bombardment by Nazi Germany - has been etched into our country's conscience ever since the war years. The question has to be asked, however, as to whether the subsequent victory in the war, and the following 60 years, have coloured the way in which it is now generally seen?

Our heritage industry has encouraged a 'Myth of the Blitz', that differs from the reality of wartime experience. The myth is that we all pulled together, that spirits were up as young and old, upper and lower classes muddled through together with high morale under the onslaught of the Nazis.

But the 'Myth of the Blitz' is just that - a myth. As members of the establishment were able to take refuge in country houses, in comfort and out of the way of the bombs, or in expensive basement clubs in the city, the lower-middle and working classes were forced to stay in the cities and face up to the deadly raids with inadequate provision for shelter.

It was a time of terror, confusion and anger. Government incompetence - almost criminal in its extent - displayed what was almost a contempt for ordinary people. It was time for the people to help themselves to the shelter they needed. It was a time of class war.

Since the end of World War One, air attack had been seen as the warfare of the future. Predictions about the unstoppable destructive power of bombing had been terrifying. Nothing seemed safe, as industrial and domestic buildings were equally threatened. There was a real fear that society would quickly collapse, under a concerted bombing campaign. Provision of shelter from the anticipated bombing was a major issue of concern.

At first no one in authority seemed concerned about the people of Britain's towns who, unlike the upper classes, could not leave their homes and find shelter in the country. Hitler had provided large, sanitary and comfortable indestructible shelters for his people, but in this country it was a different story.

The government had understood that the safest means of shelter seemed to be deep underground shelters, so a shelter for the use of government officials was built in the disused Down Street tube station. It was fitted out with bathrooms, offices and living quarters, and it remains in place to this day - forgotten and dusty.

Finsbury, in London, was a communist borough and its councillors also recognised the need to shelter its people safely. However, a pre-war scheme designed by pioneering engineer Ove Arup to build deep shelters in its garden squares was halted.

The government expressed concern that a deep shelter system might create a 'deep shelter mentality': the fear that hordes of people might descend into the bowels of the earth and never come out, rendering them useless to the war effort and hampering war production. Unfortunately, the shelter that the government actually provided for the people was a lot more meagre.

9 September 1940 - History

The governments of Germany, Italy and Japan, considering it as a condition precedent of any lasting peace that all nations of the world be given each its own proper place, have decided to stand by and co-operate with one another in regard to their efforts in greater East Asia and regions of Europe respectively wherein it is their prime purpose to establish and maintain a new order of things calculated to promote the mutual prosperity and welfare of the peoples concerned.

Furthermore, it is the desire of the three governments to extend co-operation to such nations in other spheres of the world as may be inclined to put forth endeavours along lines similar to their own, in order that their ultimate aspirations for world peace may thus be realized.

Accordingly, the governments of Germany, Italy and Japan have agreed as follows:

Japan recognizes and respects the leadership of Germany and Italy in establishment of a new order in Europe.

Germany and Italy recognize and respect the leadership of Japan in the establishment of a new order in greater East Asia.

Germany, Italy and Japan agree to co-operate in their efforts on aforesaid lines. They further undertake to assist one another with all political, economic and military means when one of the three contracting powers is attacked by a power at present not involved in the European war or in the Chinese-Japanese conflict.

With the view to implementing the present pact, joint technical commissions, members which are to be appointed by the respective governments of Germany, Italy and Japan will meet without delay.

Germany, Italy and Japan affirm that the aforesaid terms do not in any way affect the political status which exists at present as between each of the three contracting powers and Soviet Russia.(1)

The present pact shall come into effect immediately upon signature and shall remain in force 10 years from the date of its coming into force. At the proper time before expiration of said term, the high contracting parties shall at the request of any of them enter into negotiations for its renewal.

In faith whereof, the undersigned duly authorized by their respective governments have signed this pact and have affixed hereto their signatures.

Done in triplicate at Berlin, the 27th day of September, 1940, in the 19th year of the fascist era, corresponding to the 27th day of the ninth month of the 15th year of Showa (the reign of Emperor Hirohito).


(1) See Nazi-Soviet Diplomacy 1939-1941. This article refers no doubt to the Nazi-Soviet Non-agression Pact, the secret protocols to it, The Nazi-Soviet Boundary Agreement and its protocols. (note added by the Avalon Project). Back

The Stono Rebellion

Early on the morning of Sunday, September 9, 1739, twenty black Carolinians met near the Stono River, approximately twenty miles southwest of Charleston. At Stono’s bridge, they took guns and powder from Hutcheson’s store and killed the two storekeepers they found there. “With cries of ‘Liberty’ and beating of drums,” historian Peter H. Wood writes in the Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History, “the rebels raised a standard and headed south toward Spanish St. Augustine…Along the road they gathered black recruits, burned houses, and killed white opponents, sparing one innkeeper who was ‘kind to his slaves.'”

Detail showing Stono River. A compleat description of the province of Carolina in 3 parts. London: Edw. Crisp, [1711?]. General Maps. Geography & Maps Division

Thus commenced the Stono Rebellion, the largest uprising of enslaved people in the British mainland colonies prior to the American Revolution. Late that afternoon, planters riding on horseback caught up with the band of sixty to one hundred insurgents. More than twenty white Carolinians and nearly twice as many black Carolinians were killed before the rebellion was suppressed. As a consequence of the uprising, white lawmakers imposed a moratorium on slave imports and enacted a harsher slave code.

Ariel view of the countryside along the Stono River south of Charleston, South Carolina. Carol M. Highsmith, photographer, May 1, 2017. Highsmith (Carol M.) Archive. Prints & Photographs Division

Enslaved people resorted to insurrection, first in the British colonies and later in the southern United States. At least 250 insurrections have been documented between 1780 and 1864, ninety-one African Americans were convicted of insurrection in Virginia alone. The first revolt in what became the United States took place in 1526 at a Spanish settlement near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.

The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Leader of the Late Insurrection in Southampton, Virginia. Richmond: Thomas R. Gray, publisher, 1832. Rare Book Selections. Rare Book & Special Collections Division

Between 1800 and 1831, African Americans instigated several ambitious rebellions in the American South. Among these were Gabriel’s Revolt, which began north of Richmond, Virginia, on August 30, 1800, and Vesey’s Rebellion, an 1822 conspiracy to incite as many as 9,000 plantation and urban enslaved people in the vicinity of Charleston, South Carolina. Nat Turner’s Rebellion, the most effective revolt, erupted in Southampton County, Virginia, on the night of August 21, 1831. Nat Turner and his followers killed nearly sixty white people as they moved toward an armory at Jerusalem, Virginia. Halted mere miles from their goal, the approximately seventy-five insurgents were soon killed or captured by the militia. Turner’s November execution failed to assuage fears of continued insurrection. Across the South, renewed legislative efforts to forbid education and greatly restrict movement and assembly further constrained the lives of enslaved people.

Horrid Massacre in Virginia. Illus. in: Authentic and impartial narrative of the tragical scene which was witnessed in Southampton County. [New York], 1831. Prints & Photographs Division.

Re: State of British Ground Forces, September 1940, Sealion

Post by sitalkes » 07 Apr 2015, 04:51

The powered barges would all have being carrying loads that were much smaller than their capacities allowed, so they had excess power over a normal situation. Even a barge carying three tanks would have at the most 75 tons (three Panzer IVs) to carry - , but the majority of tanks were lighter than that. Yes they were going to be towed, and most were unpowered, but this in itself wasn't going to stop the invasion.

as for the weather - which of these statements is true?
(a) the British can't evacuate Dunkirk, they need good weather for that
(b) the british can't evacuate Dunkirk in a storm
(c) the allies can't invade France, they need good weather for that
(d)The allies can't invade France in a storm
(e) the Germans can't invade England, they need good weather for that
(f)The Germans can't invade England in a storm
Answer: the second part of a, c, and e, and all of b, d, and f.

Re: State of British Ground Forces, September 1940, Sealion

Post by Orwell1984 » 07 Apr 2015, 05:50

History of the Franz Christian (translated into English)

Technical data since 1929:
Length: 46.0 m
Width: 5.0 m
Draught: 2.0 m
Load capacity: 296 t
Engine power: 70 hp

Technical data since 1953:
Length: 50.25 m
Width: 5.07 m
Draught: 2.0 m
Load capacity: 318 t
Engine power: 180 hp

Re: State of British Ground Forces, September 1940, Sealion

Post by sitalkes » 07 Apr 2015, 06:08

Well it wouldn't have had a full load and even a 70 hp engine didn't prevent it from operating in the Baltic for a few years. Although there are no permanent currents in the Baltic, seasonal currents can reach 5 knots. http://www.smhi.se/en/theme/surface-currents-1.12286 Nor is the Baltic a fishing pond with a surface as smooth as glass: Even if the Baltic Sea is small compared with the oceans, it is able to generate waves of respectable heights. The highest waves in the Baltic Sea are common during storms in the big oceans, but higher waves rare even there.

The biggest basin of the Baltic Sea, the Baltic Proper, has the most severe wave climate in the Baltic Sea. During storm Rafael on 22 December 2004, the significant wave height in northern Baltic Proper reached 8.2 metres and the highest individual wave height was 14 metres. The former record at the measuring station was 7.4 metres, which was measured twice in December 1999. During storm Gudrun on 9 January 2005, the significant wave height was 7.2 metres. Significant wave heights over 7 metres have been measured in January 1984 at Almagrundet near the Swedish coast and in October 2009 and in February 2011 in the southern Baltic Proper http://en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/wave-hei . baltic-sea

Re: State of British Ground Forces, September 1940, Sealion

Post by steverodgers801 » 07 Apr 2015, 08:34

Re: State of British Ground Forces, September 1940, Sealion

Post by Paul_G_Baker » 07 Apr 2015, 12:41

A sensible commander makes provision for that sort of thing. Masses of British equipment was left behind after the evacuations usable kit, not too different from German issue. Equip as much of the invasion force as possible with British arms and ammunition prior to departure, until the LOCS situation can be improved. Simple, really!

A by-product of doing that is to make just who (i.e. Invader or Defender) is doing any firing almost impossible to distinguish by sound alone.

As soon as the weather and sea-state are suitable, there shouldn't be insurmountable problems in towing some entirely unpowered barges to Folkstone and leaving them in the inner and outer harbours (which seem to be tidal, from photographic evidence) to act as reserve depots. The Blackburn B-24 Skua and Fairey Fulmar (Fleet Air Arm) seem to have been Britain's only dive-bombers at that time. How many there were available, I don't know - but Wikipedia claims only 192 Skuas and 600 Fulmars were built.

Re: State of British Ground Forces, September 1940, Sealion

Post by Knouterer » 08 Apr 2015, 12:43

Before the Germans could have made any use of Folkestone, they would first have to take it, which would be a job in itself. The garrison of Sub-area A.4 (Folkestone, Sandgate, Shorncliffe, Hythe) was at least 6,000 strong - apart from troops of the 1st (London) Division in the vicinity - mostly consisting of Royal Engineer (training) units, who had had plenty of time to work on the defences. Up on the cliffs, there were three coast defence batteries with in total eight 6 inch and 5.5 inch guns (see modern picture for positions).
In the harbour, of course, various demolitions had been carried out in July-August: a blockship (SS Umvoti) had been sunk across the entrance, the railway bridge leading to town had been demolished, etc.
As far as is known, the Germans did not consider Folkestone worth the trouble, at least not on S-day the plan was that "Kampfgruppe Hoffmeister" would pass to the north of it and attack Dover first.

In my considered opinion, even if the Germans through some conjunction of miracles had managed to get across in good order and more or less on schedule, the landing attempt in Zone B, between Hythe and Greatstone, might well have failed, or at least have caused the Germans crippling losses if they had managed to gain a foothold.

In terms of men and guns (though perhaps not in terms of concrete, mines and other obstacles) per kilometer, the defences were much stronger than on any Normandy beach in 1944. And the invaders, at least initially, would not arrive in a mighty wave, but in little dribs and drabs, paddling ashore in rubber boats or coming in little plywood assault boats which although fast could carry only six men, offered no protection whatsoever, and would probably not have survived repeated contacts with a shingle beach.

Re: State of British Ground Forces, September 1940, Sealion

Post by Knouterer » 08 Apr 2015, 13:29

Re: State of British Ground Forces, September 1940, Sealion

Post by Paul_G_Baker » 08 Apr 2015, 15:05

Sunk or put out of action in the Invasion Ports after concentration.

Transports = 21 ex 170.
Barges = 214 ex 1918.
Tugs = 5 ex 386.
Motor Boats = 3 ex 1020.

That is called "Successful"? Only by comparison with scattering bombs across the landscape with only a tiny percentage landing within five miles of the target, methinks!

Dive Bombers would have been rather more accurate, which is why I mentioned them.

Re: State of British Ground Forces, September 1940, Sealion

Post by Knouterer » 09 Apr 2015, 00:37

Re: State of British Ground Forces, May 1941, Sealion

Post by sitalkes » 09 Apr 2015, 01:13

Re: State of British Ground Forces, September 1940, Sealion

Post by sitalkes » 09 Apr 2015, 01:44

What happens if supply is interrupted for a few days? Well it's likely to only be for a single day unless we are talking about the beginning of October. A few days is in any case Ok , as the initial wave would have brought at least three days' supplies with them, more probably a week's supplies. German units were also expected to live off the land to some extent, and they they would have supplied themselves with what they could find (e.g. the horses didn't eat oil/petrol). You can ask yourself what happened to the Allies when the storm broke in the Channel - did they get thrown out of France, despite needing hundreds of tons more supplies than the Germans would have? Anyway, there is no problem sending ships across a short stretch of water in bad weather from port to port- what matters is if the ships have to go to a beach or if they are boats smaller than a ship. There was plenty of beach supply capacity, and the weather in September was pretty good. After the first week it doesn't matter anyway - there wasn't enough port capacity in the invasion area to supply both the first and second wave and only by capturing Deal and a major port further away (e.g. Southampton) could sufficient supplies be transferred to supply both waves in bad weather. Until the second wave arrives, though, there was enough port capacity in the invasion area (assuming it can be captured) to supply the first wave, so if those ports can be captured and repaired then supplies can still be transferred, albeit at a reduced rate, in bad weather.

The Germans didn't have as complete a weather map as the British, but they did have weather stations in Norway etc and weather ships (one of these was captured to get its Enigma codes/settings), as well as submarine and aircraft reports from the Atalantic. The British weather maps are blank where they cover Europe (see the link I provided previously), so it didn't all go the British way.

Although 10% of the barges were sunk, the Germans had an excess over requirements by that stage and were able to make up the losses. Also, the barge bombing was left rather late and there's a small chance the invasion might have gone ahead before it happened. The numbers of defending troops per mile of invasion beach was a lot smaller in Britain than it was in Normandy. In Normandy the defence strength was close to one division per beach.

9/11 Timeline: How The Attacks Changed Our Cultural History (INFOGRAPHIC)

"It felt like a movie" was both a sickening and apt descriptor for the September 11, 2001, attacks. The apocalyptic scene was pegged to a part of our consciousness that isn't supposed to intersect with reality, one that's safely tucked away in a world where the human appetite for destruction can be indulged free of any qualms. The collision of these two worlds rippled our cultural fabric, and over the last decade, we've accounted for it.

Here enters our compendium of how ours and other cultures have responded to 9/11. It's meant to be a snapshot, not a comprehensive study. But though the forums are unrelated, its a strangely fluent cross-section of human reaction, from Bollywood's surprisingly lengthy 9/11 film history to the depths of Urban Dictionary.

The colors on the graphic denote what level of alert our country was on at the time, providing a sense of a nation guided by voices of fear. There is no direct correlation between the colors and the cultural events that we are aware of. Thinking back, most wouldn't even be able to recall exactly when we were on "elevated" or "high" alert, considering the government never provided adequate information to give them context. As you can see, the colors denoting "low" and "guarded" risks -- green and blue -- were never in use during the course of the alert system, and we've been in a perpetual state of "high" risk since 2006. In April of this year, the often mocked color-coded alert system was scrapped for a more specific system of alerting us to terrorism threats.

In the first quadrant, we have "revisions," which indicates the films, television and music that were altered, or plucked out entirely, to be more mindful of our history. These changes were attempts to protect ourselves from seeing what was too painful or tasteless for a nation that just didn't find bomb jokes funny anymore -- a lesson Chandler Bing, among others, would soon discover. Many came before 9/11, but had freakish similarities to the attacks, most unfortunate of which was The Coup's album cover showing two members of the group blowing up the twin towers with a detonator. Most of the cultural revisions occurred directly after September 11, when a heightened cultural sensitivity was in effect. Unless you're a fanatic of a particular TV show or film listed here, you were likely unaware that your cultural reality had been manipulated because of reality.

We initially planned to investigate how Hollywood reacted to 9/11. The more we read however, the more we realized Hollywood more or less stayed away. Sure there were supposed cinematic events -- Oliver Stone's "World Trade Center," Paul Greengrass' much-publicized "United 93" (actually a British film). But the cultural significance of Western output disappears next to the body of 9/11 films that came out of South Asia -- India and Pakistan, or more generally, Bollywood. These movies invert what Hollywood might have produced. Instead of the firefighter plagued with an ever-coarsening cough, Hindu wives denounce Muslim husbands, and American prison guards torture them. One film on our timeline, "Khude Kay Liye," isn't technically a Bollywood movie, as it came out of Pakistan's version, "Lollywood" (and became the second highest-grossing Lollywood film ever), but it functioned crucially in both. Pakistan's clerics reviled its anti-fundamentalist stance, while moderates in Pakistan and India welcomed it. It broke the 43-year movie ban between both countries. Now, for every Bollywood movie exported to Lollywood -- where the post-"Khuda Kay Liye" renaissance still pales next to India's movie machine -- India will show one from Pakistan.

American language, however, seemed to us irrevocably changed. Phrases like "too soon" and "never forget" evolved from campaign sloganesque refrains into tossed-off colloquialisms, or punch lines aimed at the kind of sentimentality that defined the last months of 2001. Expressions of pain turned into ironic proof of hindsight. But a scan of the past decade on Urban Dictionary -- a site that's cornered the ironic distance market -- revealed its own kind of sentimentality. The second anniversary of 9/11 inspired a moving "9/11" entry (we've placed the words on the timeline according to their date of creation), and the last entry is "Osamnia," written by someone on the night Osama died to describe why sleep that night was impossible.

These words most directly relate to our final "history" section. Similar to the alert backdrop, this section is not meant to superimpose meaning on the cultural events, but simply functions as a guide to our nation's psyche during significant moments, from the unfathomably disturbing "shock and awe" campaign to the wave of euphoria following Barack Obama's victory. While our memories of the events of the past 10 years may have dulled with time, these are unmoving markers that, unlike culture, cannot be revised.

Infographic built by Mike Sparks

Click on the squares for video and images of post-9/11 culture:

9 September 1940 - History

Historical events for the month of September, by day:

1 "Mary Had a Little Lamb" was published. (1830)

1 Emma M. Nutt becomes the first woman telephone operator. (1878)

1 Germany invades Poland, starting World War II (1939)

2 The Great Fire of London is started (1666)

3 The image of "Uncle Sam", a symbol of America, was first used. (1813)

3 TV soap opera Search for Tomorrow premieres on CBS. (1951)

4 George Eastman received a patent for roll film and trademarked the name "Kodak".

5 Russian Czar Peter the Great imposes a tax on beards. (1698)

5 The First Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia (1774)

6 Cal Ripken Jr. broke Lou Gehrig's baseball iron man record by playing in his 2,131st game.(1995)

7 The first Miss America beauty Pageant is held in Atlantic City N.J. (1921)

7 Google was founded by Sergey Brin and Larry Page. (1998)

8 Margaret Gorman of Washington, DC was crowned the first Miss America in Atlantic City, NJ. (1921)

8 Star Trek premiered on television. The original series had 79 episodes. (1966)

8 President Gerald R. Ford gives unconditional pardon to Richard Nixon for any crimes related to Watergate. (1974) See Pardon Day

8 The Oprah Winfrey Show premieres on television. (1986)

9 California became the 31st state (1850)

9 Elvis Presley first appears on the Ed Sullivan Show. (1956)

10 The Sewing Machine is patented. (1846) See Sewing Machine Day

10 Gunsmoke premiere on television. It became TV's longest running Western program.(1955)

10 The TV series "X-Files" premiered. (1993)

11 Congress passes a bill authorizing food stamps for low income Americans. (1959)

11 The Beatles recorded their first single "Love Me Do". (1962)

11 "The "Carol Burnett Show" premieres on television. (1967)

11 Islamic Al-Qaeda militants flew planes into NYC's twin World Trade Towers and the Pentagon(2001) More on September 911

12 Future President John F. Kennedy married Jacqueline Bouvier. (1953)

12 Television show "Lassie" premieres. (1954)

12 Television show "The Monkees" premieres, featuring the rock group. (1966)

13 New York City becomes the capitol of the United States. I bet you didn't know that! (1788)

13 Chiang Kai-Shek became the president of China (1943)

13 Scooby-Doo Where Are You? premieres on television (1969)

14 Francis Scott-Key composed the lyrics to "The Star Spangled Banner". (1814)

14 Economist and philosopher Karl Marx produces the first volume of Das Kapital. (1867)

14 "The Waltons" premieres on television. (1972)

15 The Lone Ranger premieres on television. It was originally a radio series. (1949).

16 The Mayflower sets sail from Plymouth, England. It carried pilgrims headed to the New World, to escape religious persecution. (1620)

16 The Great Seal of the United States of America was impressed on an official document for the first time. (1782)

17 Home Improvement, with Tim the Tool Man Taylor premieres on television. (1991)

17 Award winning comedy show M*A*S*H premieres on television. (1972)

18 U.S. Air Force is established. (1947

19 Mary Tyler Moore Show premieres on television. (1970)

20 Billie Jean King defeats Bobby Riggs in a battle of the sexes tennis match. (1973)

21 Henry Ford retires from Ford Motor Company. (1945)

21 Monday Night Football premieres on television. (1970)

22 President Abraham Lincoln declares the Emancipation Proclamation. (1862)

22 Television sitcom "Friends' premieres. (1994)

22 The record for drinking Ketchup belongs to Dustin Phillips (USA). On this day, he drank a 14 oz. bottle of Ketchup through a 1/4" straw in 33 seconds. (1999)

23 The planet Neptune is first discovered by German astronomer Johann Gottfried Golle. (1846)

23 "The Jetsons" premieres on television. (1962)

24 Boston's famous "Faneuil Hall" opens to the public. (1742)

24 "Daniel Boone "premieres on television. (1964)

25 Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovers the Pacific Ocean. Tell that to Pacific Islanders and a whole bunch of people on the east coast of Asia. (1513)

25 Major League Baseball's first doubleheader is played between Providence and Worcester. (1882)

25 Sandra Day O'Connor became the first female Supreme Court Justice. (1981)

26 The Federal Trade Commission was established. (1914)

26 The first televised Presidential Debate occurs between John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon. (1960)

26 "The Brady Bunch" premieres on television. (1969)

26 The U.S. Postal Service was founded. (1789)

27 The first passenger locomotive is operated by George Stephenson in England. (1825)

27 The passenger steamship SS Arctic sinks in the Atlantic oce8n off Newfoundland. Only 86 of 400 passengers survive. (1854)

27 "The Tonight Show premiers on television with Steve Allen as the first host. (1954)

28 A Spanish fleet sinks off the coast of Florida in a hurricane. About 350 die. ( 1528)

28 U.S. Navy abolishes flogging as a punishment. (1850)

28 A woman on Fifth Avenue in New York City is arrested for smoking a cigarette in a car. (1904)

28 The Giants beat the Phillies in the fastest baseball game ever plated in the majors. it was 51 minutes long. (1919)

29 Telephone service begins between the U.S. and Mexico. (1927)

29 Bell Laboratories invents the telephone answering machine. (1950)

30 Rayon is patented. (1902)

30 Television sitcom "Cheers premieres. (1982)

Holiday Insights , where every day is a holiday, a bizarre or wacky day, an observance, or a special event. Join us in the daily calendar fun each and every day of the year.

Did You Know? There are literally thousands of daily holidays, special events and observances, more than one for every day of the year. Many of these holidays are new. More holidays are being created on a regular basis. At Holiday Insights, we take great efforts to thoroughly research and document the details of each one, as completely and accurately as possible.

Note: If you are using the dates or historical information on our site for calendar or other publishing purposes, we recommend you double check with other sources.

Robert Sengstacke Abbott (1870-1940)

Born on December 24, 1870 to formerly enslaved parents in St. Simons, Georgia, Robert Sengstacke Abbott attended Hampton Institute in Virginia and then went on to graduate from Kent Law School (now Chicago-Kent College of Law in Illinois) in 1899. In May 1905 he started publishing the Chicago Defender. In the early years he personally sold subscriptions to the paper and advertising by going door to door.

The paper attacked racial injustice, particularly lynching in the south. The Defender did not use the words “Negro” or “black” in its pages. Instead, African Americans were referred to as “the Race” and black men and women as “Race men and Race women.” Many places in the south effectively banned the paper, especially when, during World War I, Abbott actively tried to convince southern blacks to migrate to the north. Abbott managed to get railroad porters to carry his papers south and he ran articles, editorials, cartoons — even train schedules and job listings — to convince the Defender’s southern readers to come north. The “Great Northern Migration,” as it was called in the Defender, resulted in more than one million blacks migrating north, about 100,000 of them coming to Chicago. The Defender was passed from person to person, and read aloud in barbershops and churches. It is estimated that at its height each paper sold was read by four to five African Americans, putting its readership at over 500,000 people each week.

In the burgeoning economic times of the 1920s, with hundreds of new products and the growth of advertising, the Defender became an economic success and Abbott became one of the first African American millionaires. Abbott, a member of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, died in Chicago on February 29, 1940 at the age of 69, with the Defender still a success.

Watch the video: WW2 in animated maps: Sept 1939 - Aug 1940