Battle of Castagnaro, 11 March 1387 (Italy)

Battle of Castagnaro, 11 March 1387 (Italy)



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Battle of Castagnaro, 11 March 1387 (Italy)

Battle in a conflict between Padua on one side and Venice and Verona on the other. Francesco de Carrara, lord of Padua, hired a large mercenary army, and put the English condottier, John Hawkwood, in charge. His force may have been close to seven thousand strong, while his opponents mustered over eleven thousand men. Hawkwood had been besieging Verona, and was forced to withdraw by a combination of hunger and the relieving army. Hawkwood only pulled back far enough to reach his supplies, then formed up in a position defended by an irrigation ditch in front, a canal on his right, and marshes on his left, with damp ground in front. Hawkwood formed up his troops in three lines - the first two of dismounted men at arms and the third including his own troop. The Veronese army found him in place on the morning of the 11th, but took till noon to form up, having expected Hawkwood to retreat further. The Veronese army, under Giovanni dei Ordelaffi, formed up into two lines. The first Veronese line attacked the Paduans defending the ditch, but were unable to cross over. Ordelaffi fed his second line in piecemeal until his entire army was engaged, at which point Hawkwood made his move. He took his own troop of English mercenaries, and crossed the ditch at its extreme right, before outflanking the enemy left so totally he was able to charge it from the rear. The Veronese left was shattered by this attack, at which point the Paduan troops attacked the front of the Veronese army, which very quickly shattered. Hawkswood's victory was complete. Close to five thousand prisoners were taken, including Ordelaffi himself, along with the entire Veronese artillery and their camp.

Battle of Castagnaro

Depiction of the “The White Company” by N.C. Wyeth

The Battle of Castagnaro was fought between armies of Verona and Padua. Verona and Padua were two neighboring city-states in northern Italy (They remain provinces in Italy today.) Leading up to the battle, an English mercenary general (condottiere/ warlord) John Hawkwood of the “White Company“, encouraged the Veronese to attack by pillaging their lands.

The Veronese responded with an army of approximately 15,000 soldiers and another 15,000 peasants in reserve. Hawkwood chose the battlefield and waited for the Veronese to form for their attack.

Hawkwood set up his position with with a ford separating the Paduans and the Veronese. Once the Veronese began their attack Hawkwood waited until the Veronese were bogged in the ford and then initiated his assault. He swung his cavalry around the ford and through some woods on his right flank. Once in position John Hawkwood gave 1,000 knights the order to charge into the left flank and rear of the Veronese with great effect. The Veronese who weren’t killed broke and began to flee the field. This was a fatal mistake and the mercenary knights mowed them down.

As with most Medieval battles the numbers are never certain but it was estimated that the Veronese sustained up to 7,000 casualties. The number of dead has been suggested to have been about 800 men. Thousands of the Veronese were taken prisoner including its Generals. For the Paduans the losses were much less consequential. The number escapes any record I can find by chroniclers at this time. The battle elevated the prestige of John Hawkwood as a condottiere in the Italian peninsula where he continued to offer his knights for hire.


Historical Events on March 11

    Trpimir II succeeds to the Croatian throne. The Battle of Castagnaro begins. Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty, crowned Shah of Persia (rules till 1524)

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1513 Giovanni de' Medici chosen Pope Leo X

    Geuzen army leaves Walcheren to return to Oosterweel Archduke Albrecht occupies Amiens, France The Frondeurs (French rebels) and the French government sign the Peace of Rueil. NY approves new code guaranteeing Protestants religious rights Mt Etna in Sicily erupts in its largest recorded eruption, killing 15,000 1st English daily newspaper "Daily Courant" publishes

Event of Interest

1708 Queen Anne withholds Royal Assent from the Scottish Militia Bill, the last time a British monarch vetoes legislation

    English auction house Sotheby's holds its first ever auction (of books) in London US Army Corps of Engineers established (1st time)

Event of Interest

    Samuel Mulliken is 1st to obtain more than one US patent Battle at Kurdla India: Mahratten beat Mogols Citizenship granted to Prussian Jews 1st normal school in US opens, Concord Academy, Concord, Vermont US War Department creates the Bureau of Indian Affairs

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1829 Johann Sebastian Bach's "St Matthew Passion" is revived by Felix Mendelssohn, aged 20, conducting in Berlin

Treaty of Waitangi

1845 The Flagstaff War: In New Zealand, Chiefs Hone Heke and Kawiti lead 700 Māoris to chop down the British flagpole and drive settlers out of the British colonial settlement of Kororareka because of breaches of the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi.

    Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine and Robert Baldwin become the first Prime Ministers of the Province of Canada to be democratically elected under a system of responsible government Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania opens, 2nd female medical school in the US

Music Premiere

1851 Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Rigoletto" premieres in Venice

Event of Interest

1855 Bowery Boys gang leader William Poole aka "Bill the Butcher" is buried in Brooklyn with 155 carriages and 6,000 mourners

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1862 Abraham Lincoln removes George McClellen as general-in-chief

Event of Interest

1862 12] General Stonewall Jackson evacuates Winchester Virginia Army of the Potomac. Gen Henry Halleck is named general-in-chief

    25th Grand National: George Stevens wins his 2nd GN aboard 4/1 Emblem winning mare's full sister Emblematic wins the following year Dale Dike on Humber River crumbles killing at least 240, in Sheffield, Yorkshire, England The Great Sheffield Flood: the largest man-made disaster ever to befall England kills over 250 people in Sheffield

Event of Interest

1865 General William T. Sherman's Union forces occupies Fayetteville, North Carolina

    Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Don Carlos" premieres in Paris The West first learns of the Giant Panda via French missionary Armand David who receives a skin from a hunter Construction of the Seven Sisters Colliery, South Wales, begins located on one of the richest coal sources in Britain The Meiji Japanese government officially annexes the Ryukyu Kingdom into what would become the Okinawa prefecture English FA Cup Final, Kennington Oval, London: Wanderers and Old Estonians draw, 1-1 Wanderers win replay, 3-0 for 3rd title Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association organized in Princeton, New Jersey

Voyage of Discovery

1882 Fridtjof Nansen sets out on a sea voyage to study Arctic zoology

Event of Interest

1893 Carlos Gardel and his mother, Berthe Gardès, arrive in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Spanish cruiser Reina Regente sinks in Straits of Gibraltar, over 400 die A meteorite enters the earth's atmosphere and explodes over New Martinsville, West Virginia. The debris causes damage but no human injuries are reported.

Event of Interest

1900 British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury rejects peace overtures from the Boer leader Paul Kruger (on 5 March) as demanding too-favourable terms

    Cincinnati Enquirer reports Baltimore manager John McGraw signed Cherokee Indian Tokohoma, who is really black 2nd baseman Charlie Grant Stanley Cup: Ottawa Silver 7 sweep Brandon Wheat Kings in 2 games Stanley Cup, Dey's Arena, Ottawa, ON: Ottawa Senators beat Rat Portage Thisles, 5-4 for 2-1 challenge series victory Jack Hobbs scores 187 vs South Africa, his 1st international test hundred only to get out hit wicket First Stanley Cup challenge game to be played in three 20-minute periods (formerly 30-minute halves), Quebec beats Moncton, 9-3 on way to series sweep

Election of Interest

1912 Eleftherios Venizelos, leader of the Liberal Party, wins the Greek elections again.

The 1918 Flu Pandemic

1918 US Army mess cook Private Albert Gitchell of Fort Riley, Kansas becomes the first documented case of Spanish flu start of worldwide pandemic killing 50-100 million

    General strike in Germany crushed Syria proclaims Emir Feisal king after the country has fought off French domination Western Hockey Championship: Vancouver Millionaires (PCHA) sweep Regina Capitals, in 2 games 3rd term of Belgium Theunis government begins Eden Phillpotts' "Farmer's Wife" premieres in London NHL Championship: Montreal Canadiens sweeps Ottawa Senators in 2 games Eamon da Valera ends leadership of Sinn Féin 1st armored commercial car hold-up in US, Pittsburgh 1st golden gloves tournament Samuel Roxy Rothafel opens famous Roxy Theater (NYC) William Taft, US 27th President & Chief Justice buried in Arlington Ready for Labour and Defence of the USSR, abbreviated as GTO, is introduced in the Soviet Union Bank of Canada first opens on Wellington Street, Ottawa

Event of Interest

1935 Hermann Goering officially creates the Luftwaffe (German Air Force)


References [ edit ]

  1. ^ Rogers, Clifford J., ed. (2010). "Castagnaro, Battle of" . The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. 1. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN  9780195334036 . OCLC�.
  2. ^
  3. Temple-Leader, John Marcotti, Giuseppe (1889). Sir John Hawkwood (L'Acuto) story of a condottiere. London, UK: T. Fisher Unwin. pp.𧇈–201. OCLC� . Retrieved 2014-03-10 .
    Later republished:
  4. Temple-Leader, John Marcotti, Giuseppe (2005). Sir John Hawkwood (L'Acuto) story of a condottiere. Mansfield Centre, CT: Martino Pub. ISBN  9781578984961 . OCLC�.
  5. ^Geoffrey Trease, The Condottieri, 1971
  6. ^ ab
  7. Temple-Leader, John Marcotti, Giuseppe. Sir John Hawkwood (L'Acuto) story of a condottiere. p.𧇉.

Famous Birthdays In 1387

Famous People Born In This Year In History

Jan 01 In the year 1387 birth of charles, The Angry One, king of Navarra (1349-87)

Aug 29 Henry V, king of England (1413-22)/France (1416-19) was born on this day in history.

Sep 16 On this day in history birth of henry V, king of England (1413-22)


Battle of Castagnaro

The Battle of Castagnaro was fought on 11 March 1387 at Castagnaro (today's Veneto, northern Italy) between Verona and Padua. It is one of the most famous battles of the Italian condottieri age.

The army of Verona was led by Giovanni Ordelaffi and Ostasio II da Polenta, while the victorious Paduans were commanded by John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto) and Francesco Novello da Carrara, the son of Francesco I, lord of Padua. John Hawkwood brought 1,100 of his own condottiere (600 cavalry and 500 archers, or vice versa depending on the source) to supplement the Paduan forces of 8,000 men (Giuseppe Marcotti places the number of dismounted condottiere at 6,000 men, along with a reserve of 1,600 horse. [2] He also goes on to say that there were 1,000 native footmen of Padua, and 600 crossbowman guarding a river bank.)

Castagnaro is hailed as Sir John Hawkwood's greatest victory. [3] Following a Fabian-like strategy, Hawkwood goaded the Veronese into attacking him on a field of his own choosing, by laying waste to the Veronese lands nearby.

Drawing his forces up on the far side of a canal, and anchoring his right flank on a patch of woods, Hawkwood waited until the Veronese had committed to attacking across a ford of fascines piled up in the canal. Once so occupied, Hawkwood sprang his trap.

Hawkwood had left a copy of his standard behind his forces, then had led his cavalry into the woods to his right. At a given signal — supposedly, a flaming arrow — the copy of his standard dropped, and Hawkwood's cavalry burst from the woods on the Veronese left, with his real standard in front. At the point of impact, Hawkwood is said to have cast his commander's baton into the Veronese ranks and ordered his men to retrieve it for him.

Per Trease, it is said that Hawkwood's battle cry that day was a grim play on the Paduan war-cry of Carro! ("Cart!", from the coat of arms of the House of Da Carrara) — in Hawkwood's rendition, it became Carne! ("Flesh!").

The Veronese tried to intervene with their reserve of 2,500 cavalry commanded by Captain General Giovanni degli Ordelaffi and Ostasio da Polenta. However, the road was blocked by Hawkwood's forces, and Giovanni degli Ordelaffi and Ostasio da Polenta were captured 1,900 of the cavalry fled, but were pursued and many were captured. [4] The corps of infantry and Veronese peasants commanded by Giovanni da Isola remained intact on the battlefield, but was destroyed after it refused to surrender. [4]


History of The White Company

was a 14th-century Italian mercenary Company of Adventure (It :compagnia di ventura), led from its arrival in Italy in 1361 to 1365 by the German Albert Sterz and later by the Englishman John Hawkwood.

Although the White Company is the name by which it is popularly known, it was initially called the Great Company of English and Germans and would later often be referred to as the English Company (It: Compagnia degli Inglesi, L: Societas Angliciis).

No medieval source explains the company's name. The traditional view is that it is a reference to the brightly polished armour of the men-at-arms. However, William Caferro has suggested that it was because the Company originally wore white surcoats. This view might be supported by the fact that mercenaries led by Arnaud de Cervole in France at this time were known as bandes blanches

Despite it being commonly referred to as the English Company, personnel were drawn from a wide range of nationalities, reflecting the international nature of Italian mercenary warfare in the 14th. century, including at various times Germans, Italians and Hungarians.

The numbers of men in the Company varied over the years. In 1361, it is recorded as having 3,500 cavalry and 2,000 infantry. At its lowest ebb in 1388, it had a mere 250 men.

The company was organised in lances of three men a man-at-arms, a squire and a page. Of these, only the man-at-arms and squire were armed. These lances were organised into contingents, each under a corporal, who was often an independent sub-contractor. This structure gave the Company a certain democratic element and it is thought that John Hawkwood first gained command of the Company in 1365 by election. The company contained numbers of infantry, particularly English longbowmen. These could be mounted on horses as were the 600 involved in the Battle of Castagnaro in 1387.

In addition to its military structure, the Company had an administrative staff, usually Italian, of chancellors and notaries who managed the legal and contractual aspects of the Companies relationship with employers, and a treasurer to handle its financial affairs. The White Company's treasurer was an Englishman, William Thornton.

The White Company is credited with introducing to Italy the practice of dismounting men-at-arms in battle, a practice already commonplace in the battles of the Hundred Years' War in France. Contemporary witnesses record that the Company fought dismounted and in close order, advancing with two men-at-arms holding the same lance at a slow pace while shouting loud battle cries. The longbowmen apparently drew up behind. This is not to suggest that they abandoned mounted combat altogether. The Battle of Castagnaro was won by a cavalry charge.

The White Company was involved in the following battles

    • Battle of Canturino 1363
    • First Battle of Cascina 1364
    • Second Battle of Cascina 1369
    • Battle of Montichiari 1373
    • Castagnaro 1387
    • Tizzana 1391

    The Company was also involved in a large number of skirmishes, sieges and attacks on towns. Less honourable was their participation in the Massacre at Cesena in 1377, when several thousand civilians were killed.


    Batalha de Castagnaro


    A Batalha de Castagnaro ocorreu em 11 de março de 1387. [ 1 ] A batalha se deu pelo conflito entre Pádua de um lado e Veneza e Verona de outro. Francesco de Carrara, lorde de Pádua, contratou um grandes exército de soldados mercenários e colocou o condottiero inglês, John Hawkwood, no comando.

    Sua força tinha perto de sete mil homens, enquanto seus opositores reuniram mais de onze mil homens. Hawkwood havia sido cercado por Verona, e foi forçado a se retirar da guerra por uma combinação de fome e alivio do exército. Hawkwood apenas recuou o suficiente para alcançar mais fornecimento para guerra, formando uma posição defensiva onde existia um fosso de irrigação na frente, um canal à sua direita, e pântanos à sua esquerda, com o solo úmido em frente. Hawkwood alinhou suas tropas em três linhas - os dois primeiros de homens desmontados com armas e o terceiro incluía a sua própria tropa.

    O exército Veronese chegou ao local na manhã do dia 11, mas levou meio dia para agrupar-se, depois de ter esperado Hawkwood recuar ainda mais. O exército Veronese, sob comando de Giovanni Ordelaffi, formou duas linhas. A primeira linha Veronese atacou os Padovanis que defendiam o canal, mas foram incapazes de atravessar. Ordelaffi alimentou sua segunda linha até todo o seu exército estar preparado, neste ponto Hawkwood fez seu movimento. Ele tomou a sua própria tropa de mercenários ingleses, e cruzou a vala na sua extrema direita, antes de flanquear o inimigo deixou-os totalmente habilitados para carregá-lo por trás.

    A esquerda Veronese foi abalada por este ataque, nesta altura as tropas de Pádua atacaram a frente do exército Veronese, que foi rapidamente destruído. A vitória de Hawkswood estava completa. Perto de cinco mil prisioneiros foram tomados, incluindo o próprio Ordelaffi, juntamente com toda a artilharia Veronese e seu acampamento.


    Feral Jundi

    “God take away your alms. For as you live by charity, so do I by war, and to me it is as genuine a vocation as yours.”
    – Sir John Hawkwood,
    upon being greeted by two friars with the words, “God give you peace.”

    So with this post, I wanted to highlight a quote from The Prince below that is of significance. Machiavelli used John Hawkwood as an example of ‘one who did not conquer’ or desired to conquer Florence. To me, this pointed out a key element to Hawkwood’s success. That he identified a niche in the market of force back then that made his services and company stand out.

    Hawkwood was an extremely successful captain back then, and his services were highly sought after. But what is most interesting to me is this guy was a foreigner in Italy at the time. And yet he was so successful and so respected that he had the name of Giovanni Acuto given to him, awarded land, made commander of forces, citizenship offered, a pension– and get this, he was buried with state honors in the Duomo! Not bad for a foreigner and the son of an Essex tanner?

    His last days as a commander of forces in Florence, are what the people remembered, just because he was so crucial to the defense of that city against Milanese expansion. But the war that impressed me, that was supposedly one of the most famous wars of that time period, was the Battle of Castagnaro. Here is a snippet from wikipedia:

    Battle of Castagnaro
    The Battle of Castagnaro was fought on March 11, 1387 at Castagnaro (today’s Veneto, northern Italy) between Verona and Padua. It is one of the most famous battles of the Italian condottieri age.
    The army of Verona was led by Giovanni Ordelaffi and Ostasio II da Polenta, while the victorious Paduans were commanded by John Hawkwood (Giovanni Acuto) and Francesco Novello da Carrara, the son of Francesco I, lord of Padua.
    Castagnaro is hailed as Sir John Hawkwood’s greatest victory. Following a Fabian-like strategy, Hawkwood goaded the Veronese into attacking him on a field of his own choosing, by laying waste to the Veronese lands nearby.
    Drawing his forces up on the far side of a canal, and anchoring his right flank on a patch of woods, Hawkwood waited until the Veronese had committed to attacking across a ford of fascines piled up in the canal. Once so occupied, Hawkwood sprang his trap.
    Hawkwood had left a copy of his standard behind his forces, then had led his cavalry into the woods to his right. At a given signal – supposedly, a flaming arrow – the copy of his standard dropped, and Hawkwood’s cavalry burst from the woods on the Veronese left, with his real standard in front. At the point of impact, Hawkwood is said to have cast his commander’s baton into the Veronese ranks and ordered his men to retrieve it for him.
    Per Trease, it is said that Hawkwoods battle cry that day was a grim play on the Paduan war-cry of Carro! – in Hawkwood’s rendition, it became Carne! (“Flesh!”).

    It is also important to point out Hawkwood’s secrets to success. He certainly was acute or a student of warfare, and he identified the niche he needed to not only be marketable, but dominate. He also had a sense of humor, as stated with that last sentence in the quote. Here is another quote from wikipedia:

    However part of the White Company’s reputation was built upon the fact that Sir John’s men were far less likely to desert dangerous situations than other mercenaries and Hawkwood soon grew much richer than many other condottiere.

    This quote tells me a lot. It says that he focused on taking care of his people. The only way you can keep guys from deserting like this, is that they must have trusted Hawkwood and that he paid well. He had the top company to work for back then, and when you have a good company, you gain loyalty and develop unit cohesion. Success breeds success, as they say. I would compare it to a company like Apple or Google, and how these companies attract the best of the best, and keep them around because they pay well and the leadership/culture is awesome. Not to mention that these folks also believe in the product or service being sold.

    Finally, I wanted to end this with the quote up top that also sheds some light into the mindset of Hawkwood. I do not classify this as an indication of Hawkwood’s religious beliefs or intentions, but more an indication as to his life’s focus. That he was a student of warfare, and a student of the market of force he worked in. That he understood the Italian way of the condottiere, and mastered it.-Matt

    Sir John Hawkwood is on the right side.

    The Prince
    by Nicolo Machiavelli
    CHAPTER XII
    How Many Kinds Of Soldiery There Are, And Concerning Mercenaries
    …And if the Venetians and Florentines formerly extended their dominions by these arms, and yet their captains did not make themselves princes, but have defended them, I reply that the Florentines in this case have been favoured by chance, for of the able captains, of whom they might have stood in fear, some have not conquered, some have been opposed, and others have turned their ambitions elsewhere. One who did not conquer was Giovanni Acuto, and since he did not conquer his fidelity cannot be proved but every one will acknowledge that, had he conquered, the Florentines would have stood at his discretion.

    “A condottiere (plural condottieri) was the holder of a military condotta (plural condotte), or contract, for the raising and leadership of troops. While condotte were being issued by Italian cities and states as early as the second half of the twelve hundreds as a means of recruiting a part of their armies, it was only in the later years of the thirteen hundreds that such contracts became the main method of raising armies in Italy. The companies, often made up largely of foreigners (many of whom had been left “unemployed” by the temporary cessation of the Hundred Years War around the time of the Black Death in 1348), which dominated Italian warfare for much of the thirteen hundreds, were normally employed under contract, but they were surprisingly democratic in their organization, and the contracts with employing states were signed by representative groups of leaders. By about 1370 individual military commanders had largely gained control of the companies and had become the sole contractors for their services. From this moment onwards the vast majority of condottieri were Italians and they dominated the military scene in Italy throughout the fourteen hundreds.
    The nuclei of the companies which condottieri contracted to provide were normally kept permanently in being and augmented for specific contracts and campaigns by recruitment of additional rank and file. The condottiere, therefore, was invariably a man of substance possessing estates and permanent income which enabled him to maintain his principal followers between contracts and recruit rapidly from amongst his own tenants and dependants. These socio-economic conditions were of more importance than military reputation in dictating the size of the contract which a condottiere could obtain, and hence his prestige and reputation. Many of the leading condottieri were either independent princes like the Gonzaga lords of Mantua or the Este lords of Ferrara, or were members of extensive landowning families like the Orsini or Dal Verme.
    The main strength of the condottiere company lay in its ‘lances’, a term which describes not only the main weapon of heavily armed cavalrymen but also the group of attendants who supported them. However, during the fourteen hundreds, condottieri began to take an increasing interest in infantry as an essential support to their cavalry, and a number of leading captains also possessed some artillery. While it would be wrong to see a willingness to experiment and innovate as an outstanding characteristic of the condottieri, there were among them some major military personalities. Men like Francesco Sforza, Bartolomeo Colleoni and Federico da Montefeltro had European reputations in the mid-fourteen hundreds, and in the Wars of Italy many of the most successful leaders of the French and Spanish armies in Italy were Italian condottieri.
    Undoubtedly the contract system of service tended to breed a sort of military individualism which weakened the cohesion of a large army, but in fact by the fourteen hundreds the system did not mean that condottieri changed their employment with every contract. The Italian states were among the first in Europe to develop permanent armies, and most Italian condottieri settled into a pattern of routine renewals of increasingly long-term contracts with one or other of the states. There remained the exceptional figures whose reputations, and whose control of what amounted to large private armies, prompted political ambitions and made them targets of increasingly tempting offers from potential employers. But at this level the condotta took on some of the characteristics of a diplomatic alliance, and a switch of allegiance has to be seen in terms of international politics rather than individual infidelity. In formal terms the condotta system and the role of the condottiere as a leader of cavalry survived throughout the fifteen hundreds. But the declining importance of cavalry in war and the growing political domination of France and Spain in Italy meant an end to their political role and a decline in social prestige.”
    Source: The Thames and Hudson Dictionary of the Italian Renaissance


    On This Day In History March 11

    This is your morning Open Thread. Pour your favorite beverage and review the past and comment on the future.

    Find the past “On This Day in History” here.

    March 11 is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 295 days remaining until the end of the year.

    On this day in 1851, The first performance of Rigoletto by Giuseppe Verdi takes place in Venice.

    Rigoletto is an opera in three acts with the Italian libretto written by Francesco Maria Piave based on the play Le roi s’amuse by Victor Hugo. It is considered by many to be the first of the operatic masterpieces of Verdi’s middle-to-late career.

    Composition history

    Verdi was commissioned to write a new opera by the La Fenice opera house in Venice in 1850, at a time when he was already a well-known composer with a degree of freedom in choosing the works he would prefer to set to music. He then asked Piave (with whom he had already created Ernani, I due Foscari, Macbeth, Il Corsaro and Stiffelio) to examine the play Kean by Alexandre Dumas, père, but he felt he needed a more energetic subject to work on.

    Verdi soon stumbled upon Victor Hugo’s Le roi s’amuse. He later explained that “It contains extremely powerful positions … The subject is great, immense, and has a character that is one of the most important creations of the theatre of all countries and all Ages”. It was a highly controversial subject and Hugo himself had already had trouble with censorship in France, which had banned productions of his play after its first performance nearly twenty years earlier (and would continue to ban it for another thirty years). As Austria at that time directly controlled much of Northern Italy, it came before the Austrian Board of Censors. Hugo’s play depicted a king (Francis I of France) as an immoral and cynical womanizer, something that was not accepted in Europe during the Restoration period.

    From the beginning, Verdi was aware of the risks, as was Piave. In a letter which Verdi wrote to Piave: “Use four legs, run through the town and find me an influential person who can obtain the permission for making Le Roi s’amuse.” Correspondence between a prudent Piave and an already committed Verdi followed, and the two remained at risk and underestimated the power and the intentions of Austrians. Even the friendly Guglielmo Brenna, secretary of La Fenice, who had promised them that they would not have problems with the censors, was wrong.

    At the beginning of the summer of 1850, rumors started to spread that Austrian censorship was going to forbid the production. They considered the Hugo work to verge on lèse majesté, and would never permit such a scandalous work to be performed in Venice. In August, Verdi and Piave prudently retired to Busseto, Verdi’s hometown, to continue the composition and prepare a defensive scheme. They wrote to the theatre, assuring them that the censor’s doubts about the morality of the work were not justified but since very little time was left, very little could be done. The work was secretly called by the composers The Malediction (or The Curse), and this unofficial title was used by Austrian censor De Gorzkowski (who evidently had known of it from spies) to enforce, if needed, the violent letter by which he definitively denied consent to its production.

    In order not to waste all their work, Piave tried to revise the libretto and was even able to pull from it another opera Il Duca di Vendome, in which the sovereign was substituted with a duke and both the hunchback and the curse disappeared. Verdi was completely against this proposed solution and preferred instead to have direct negotiations with censors, arguing over each and every point of the work.

    At this point Brenna, La Fenice’s secretary, showed the Austrians some letters and articles depicting the bad character but the great value of the artist, helping to mediate the dispute. In the end the parties were able to agree that the action of the opera had to be moved from the royal court of France to a duchy of France or Italy, as well as a renaming of the characters. In the Italian version the Duke reigns over Mantova and belongs to the Gonzaga family: the Gonzaga had long been extinct by the mid-19th Century, and the Dukedom of Mantova did not exist anymore, so nobody could be offended. The scene in which the sovereign retires in Gilda’s bedroom would be deleted and the visit of the Duke to the Taverna (inn) was not intentional anymore, but provoked by a trick. The hunchback (originally Triboulet) became Rigoletto (from French rigolo = funny). The name of the work too was changed.

    For the première, Verdi had Felice Varesi as Rigoletto, the young tenor Raffaele Mirate as the Duke, and Teresina Brambilla as Gilda (though Verdi would have preferred Teresa De Giuli Borsi). Teresina Brambilla was a well-known soprano coming from a family of singers and musicians one of her nieces, Teresa Brambilla, was the wife of Amilcare Ponchielli.

    The opening was a complete triumph, especially the scena drammatica, and the Duke’s cynical aria, “La donna è mobile”, was sung in the streets the next morning.

    222 – Emperor Elagabalus is assassinated, along with his mother, Julia Soaemias, by the Praetorian Guard during a revolt. Their mutilated bodies are dragged through the streets of Rome before thrown into the Tiber.

    1387 – Battle of Castagnaro: English condottiero Sir John Hawkwood leads Padova to victory in a factional clash with Verona.

    1649 – The Frondeurs and the French sign the Peace of Rueil.

    1702 – The Daily Courant, England’s first

    national daily newspaper is published for the first time.

    1708 – Queen Anne withholds Royal Assent from the Scottish Militia Bill, the last time a British monarch vetoes legislation.

    1784 – The signing of the Treaty of Mangalore brings the Second Anglo-Mysore War to an end.

    1811 – During Andre Massena’s retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras, a division led by French Marshal Michel Ney fought off a combined Anglo-Portuguese force to give Massena time to escape.

    1824 – The United States War Department creates the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

    1845 – The Flagstaff War: Unhappy with translational differences regarding the Treaty of Waitangi, chiefs Hone Heke, Kawiti and Maori tribe members chop down the British flagpole for a fourth time and drive settlers out of Kororareka, New Zealand.

    1848 – Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine and Robert Baldwin become the first Prime Ministers of the Province of Canada to be democratically elected under a system of responsible government.

    1851 – The first performance of Rigoletto by Giuseppe Verdi takes place in Venice.

    1861 – American Civil War: The Constitution of the Confederate States of America is adopted.

    1864 – The Great Sheffield Flood: The largest man-made disaster ever to befall England kills over 250 people in Sheffield.

    1867 – The first performance of Don Carlos by Giuseppe Verdi takes place in Paris.

    1872 – Construction of the Seven Sisters Colliery, South Wales, begins located on one of the richest coal sources in Britain.

    1872 – The Meiji Japanese government officially annexes the Ryukyu Kingdom into what would become the Okinawa prefecture.

    1888 – The Great Blizzard of 1888 begins along the eastern seaboard of the United States, shutting down commerce and killing more than 400.

    1917 – World War I: Baghdad falls to Anglo-Indian forces commanded by General Stanley Maude.

    1927 – In New York City, Samuel Roxy Rothafel opens the Roxy Theatre.

    1931 – Ready for Labour and Defence of the USSR, abbreviated as GTO, is introduced in the Soviet Union.

    1941 – World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Lend-Lease Act into law, allowing American-built war supplies to be shipped to the Allies on loan.

    1942 – World War II: General Douglas MacArthur abandons Corregidor.

    1945 – World War II: The Imperial Japanese Navy attempts a large-scale kamikaze attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet anchored at Ulithi atoll in Operation Tan No. 2.

    1945 – World War II: The Empire of Vietnam, a short-lived puppet state, is established with Bao Dai as its ruler.

    1977 – The 1977 Hanafi Muslim Siege: more than 130 hostages held in Washington, D.C., by Hanafi Muslims are set free after ambassadors from three Islamic nations join negotiations.

    1978 – Coastal Road massacre: At least 37 are killed and more than 70 are wounded when Al Fatah hijack an Israeli bus, prompting Israel’s Operation Litani.

    1983 – Pakistan successfully conducts a cold test of a nuclear weapon.

    1985 – Mikhail Gorbachev becomes the Soviet Union’s leader.

    1990 – Lithuania declares itself independent from the Soviet Union.

    1990 – Patricio Aylwin is sworn-in as the first democratically elected Chilean president since 1970.

    1993 – Janet Reno is confirmed by the United States Senate and sworn-in the next day, becoming the first female Attorney General of the United States.

    1999 – Infosys becomes the first Indian company listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange.

    2004 – Madrid train bombings: Simultaneous explosions on rush hour trains in Madrid, Spain, kill 191 people.

    2006 – Michelle Bachelet is inaugurated as first female president of Chile.

    2007 – Russian helicopters reportedly attack the Kodori Valley in Abkhazia, an accusation that Russia categorically denies later.

    2009 – Winnenden school shooting – 17 people are killed at a school in Germany.

    2010 – Economist and businessman Sebastián Piñera is sworn in as President of Chile, while three earthquakes, the strongest measuring magnitude 6.9 and all centered next to Pichilemu, capital of Cardenal Caro Province, hit central Chile during the ceremony.

    2011 – An earthquake measuring 9.0 in magnitude strikes 130 km (81 mi) east of Sendai, Japan, triggering a tsunami killing thousands of people. This event also triggered the second largest nuclear accident in history, and one of only two events to be classified as a Level 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale.

    2012 – A US soldier kills 16 civilians in the Panjwayi District of Afghanistan near Kandahar.

    2014 – Russia annexed Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Getting 2014 Crimean crisis and 2014-15 Russian military intervention in Ukraine.


    Battle of Castagnaro, 11 March 1387 (Italy) - History

    Based on a last menstrual period of june 05, 2015 and a 28 day menstrual cycle:

    • Conception likely took place on june 19, 2015.
    • The baby was born during winter time.
    • The first trimester began on june 05, 2015.
    • The second trimester (weeks 13-27) began on september 04, 2015.
    • The third trimester (weeks 28-40) began on december 18, 2015.

    What else is in this report?

    Multiples - Due Dates by Average Gestation

    Twins Triplets Quads
    February 19, 2016
    37 weeks
    January 22, 2016
    33 weeks
    January 15, 2016
    32 weeks

    Trimester Stages

    Type Second 2nd Trimester Third 3rd Trimester
    By Development September 04, 2015 December 18, 2015
    By Gestation September 06, 2015 December 08, 2015
    By Conception September 16, 2015 December 14, 2015

    Significant Milestones in Embryo/Fetal Development

    Description Date Week
    Your baby is conceived June 19, 2015 Week 2
    Positive pregnancy test July 03, 2015 Week 4
    Organs begin to form, heart starts beating July 10, 2015 Week 5
    Major organs have formed, heart can be heard August 14, 2015 Week 10
    Second trimester, risk of miscarriage decreases August 28, 2015 Week 12
    Now is a good time to announce your pregnancy September 11, 2015 Week 14
    Your baby can now see light September 18, 2015 Week 15
    Your baby's gender is visible on ultrasound September 25, 2015 Week 16
    You can feel your baby move around October 09, 2015 Week 18
    Your baby can now hear sounds October 16, 2015 Week 19
    Premature babies have a chance to survive November 13, 2015 Week 23
    Third trimester, your baby can breathe December 11, 2015 Week 27
    Fingernails and toenails have formed January 15, 2016 Week 32
    Your baby is now considered full term February 19, 2016 Week 37
    Your baby is due any time now! March 11, 2016 Week 40

    Prenatal Testing Dates

    Test From To
    Blood/Urine Test First Prenatal Exam -
    Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) August 14, 2015 September 04, 2015
    First Trimester Screen August 21, 2015 September 04, 2015
    Amniocentesis September 11, 2015 October 23, 2015
    Cordocentesis October 02, 2015 -
    Quad Screen September 25, 2015 October 09, 2015
    Triple Screen Test September 18, 2015 October 23, 2015
    Glucose Challenge Test (GCT) November 20, 2015 December 18, 2015
    Biophysical Profile (BPP) January 15, 2016 -
    Fetal Non-Stress Test (NST) December 18, 2015 -
    View all

    Imagine, your baby will:

    • Start kindergarten in 2021 (5 to 6 years).
    • Loose a first baby tooth in 2022 (6 to 7 years).
    • Speak fluently in 2022 (6 years).
    • Start middle school in 2025 (9 to 10 years).
    • Become a teenager in 2029 (13 years).
    • Start high school in 2030 (14 to 15 years).
    • Be old enough to drive in 2032 (16 years).
    • Reach adulthood, voting rights and finish high school in 2034 (18 years).
    • Graduate from college around 2038 (22 to 23 years).

    Fun Birth Date Facts

    • Zodiac sign: Pisces
    • Your baby was born in the Chinese year of the monkey.
    • Half Birthday: September 11, 2016 (6 months old)
    • This time next year your baby will be 326 weeks old!
    • Your baby will be born in the 6th most popular birthing month.
    • According to Mother Goose, Friday's child is loving and giving.
    • Birthstone: Bloodstone (traditional) or Aquamarine (modern)
    • Birth Flower: Daffodil
    • Birth Tree: Lime Tree, the Doubt
    • Birth Color: Brown
    • Life path number: 5
    • Moon Phase: Waxing Crescent Moon
    • First ever fortune cookie: You will always have good luck and overcome many hardships.

    It's been.

    • 314.9 weeks
    • 2204 days
    • 52896 hours
    • 3173760 minutes
    • 190425600 seconds
    • By Christmas 2016, baby will be 41 weeks and 2 days old.
    • By New Year's Day 2017, baby will be 42 weeks and 2 days old.
    • By Valentine's day 2017, baby will be 48 weeks and 4 days old.

    Famous People Born on this Day

    • Douglas Adams (English writer) was born in 1952.
    • Johnny Knoxville (American television personality) was born in 1971.
    • Thora Birch (American actress) was born in 1982.

    On This Day In History

    • 1917 - World War I: Baghdad falls to Anglo-Indian forces commanded by General Stanley Maude.
    • 1641 - Battle of Mbororé: Guaranís from Jesuit Reductions fight Bandeirantes, and Portuguese explorers after separation of the Kingdoms of Spain and Portugal.
    • 1861 - American Civil War: The Constitution of the Confederate States of America is adopted.
    • 1927 - In New York City, Samuel Roxy Rothafel opens the Roxy Theatre.
    • 1708 - Queen Anne withholds Royal Assent from the Scottish Militia Bill, the last time a British monarch vetoes legislation.
    • 2006 - Michelle Bachelet is inaugurated as first female president of Chile.
    • 1872 - Construction of the Seven Sisters Colliery, South Wales, begins located on one of the richest coal sources in Britain.
    • 1824 - The United States War Department creates the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
    • 1848 - Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine and Robert Baldwin become the first Prime Ministers of the Province of Canada to be democratically elected under a system of responsible government.
    • 1993 - Janet Reno is confirmed by the United States Senate and sworn-in the next day, becoming the first female Attorney General of the United States.

    Pregnancy Timeline

    First 1st Trimester Second 2nd Trimester Third 3rd Trimester
    Week 1: June 12, 2015 Week 13: September 04, 2015 Week 28: December 18, 2015
    Week 2: June 19, 2015 Week 14: September 11, 2015 Week 29: December 25, 2015
    Week 3: June 26, 2015 Week 15: September 18, 2015 Week 30: January 01, 2016
    Week 4: July 03, 2015 Week 16: September 25, 2015 Week 31: January 08, 2016
    Week 5: July 10, 2015 Week 17: October 02, 2015 Week 32: January 15, 2016
    Week 6: July 17, 2015 Week 18: October 09, 2015 Week 33: January 22, 2016
    Week 7: July 24, 2015 Week 19: October 16, 2015 Week 34: January 29, 2016
    Week 8: July 31, 2015 Week 20: October 23, 2015 Week 35: February 05, 2016
    Week 9: August 07, 2015 Week 21: October 30, 2015 Week 36: February 12, 2016
    Week 10: August 14, 2015 Week 22: November 06, 2015 Week 37: February 19, 2016
    Week 11: August 21, 2015 Week 23: November 13, 2015 Week 38: February 26, 2016
    Week 12: August 28, 2015 Week 24: November 20, 2015 Week 39: March 04, 2016
    Week 25: November 27, 2015 Week 40: March 11, 2016
    Week 26: December 04, 2015 Week 41: March 18, 2016
    Week 27: December 11, 2015 Week 42: March 25, 2016

    Share This Report

    Calculated Based on

    The above information was calculated based on the following submitted information:

    • Start of your latest menstruation: june 05, 2015
    • Average length of your cycle: 28
    • Luteal phase length: 14

    If you'd like to adjust your dates, please go resubmit your information.

    It's important to know that only 5% of all pregnancies occur on the predicted due date.


    Watch the video: Famous battles: Battle of Castagnaro 1387